S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System

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Unformatted text preview: Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 1 of 38 Phase C Antenna Deployment System Prepared by: Garikoitz Madinabeitia Checked by: Guillaume Roethlisberger Approved by: EPFL-LCSM Lausanne Switzerland 16/01/2008 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 2 of 38 RECORD OF REVISIONS ISS/REV Date Modifications Created/modified by 1/0 7/11/07 Initial issue Garikoitz Madinabeitia 1/1 25/11/07 Correction Guillaume Roethlisberger Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 3 of 38 RECORD OF REVISIONS ................................................................................................................................... 2 ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 6 2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................................................... 7 2.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS.......................................................................................................................... 8 2.2 MISSION & PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................... 8 2.2.1 H/W Performance.................................................................................................................................. 8 2.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................................. 8 2.3.1 Constraints ............................................................................................................................................ 8 2.4 INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................................. 9 2.4.1 Structural .............................................................................................................................................. 9 2.4.2 Electrical ............................................................................................................................................... 9 2.4.3 Physical ................................................................................................................................................. 9 2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................ 10 2.5.1 Thermal ............................................................................................................................................... 10 2.5.2 Vacuum................................................................................................................................................ 10 3 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS AND APPROACH ........................................................................................ 11 3.1 DESIGN AFTER PHASE B/C ............................................................................................................................. 11 3.2 POSITION OF THE ANTENNAS ......................................................................................................................... 11 3.3 SOLAR CELLS ................................................................................................................................................. 12 3.4 INTERFACES................................................................................................................................................... 12 3.4.1 Mechanical interfaces ......................................................................................................................... 12 3.4.2 Electrical interfaces ............................................................................................................................ 13 3.4.3 Radio Frequency interfaces ................................................................................................................ 13 3.5 APPROACH..................................................................................................................................................... 14 4 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................. 15 4.1 SOLUTION SUMMARY..................................................................................................................................... 15 4.2 DESIGN OF THE ADS ..................................................................................................................................... 16 4.2.1 Guides ................................................................................................................................................. 17 4.2.2 Dyneema heating ................................................................................................................................. 18 4.2.3 Antennas .............................................................................................................................................. 19 4.2.4 Solar panels......................................................................................................................................... 20 4.3 MATERIAL SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................... 21 4.3.1 Guides ................................................................................................................................................. 22 4.3.2 Antennas .............................................................................................................................................. 22 4.3.3 Heating wire ........................................................................................................................................ 22 4.3.4 Polymer band ...................................................................................................................................... 22 4.3.5 Plates ................................................................................................................................................... 23 4.3.6 Spacers ................................................................................................................................................ 23 4.4 MASS BUDGET ............................................................................................................................................... 23 4.5 EIGEN FREQUENCIES STUDY .......................................................................................................................... 24 4.5.1 Analytically solved .............................................................................................................................. 24 4.5.2 Finite Element modelling (Abaqus) ..................................................................................................... 25 ANTENNAS DEPLOYMENT EFFECT OVER THE SATELLITE ..................................................................................... 25 4.6 ........................................................................................................................................................................... 25 4.7 CALCULATION FOR THE POSITION FOR THE END OF THE LONG ANTENNA ....................................................... 26 5 TESTS ......................................................................................................................................................... 28 LONG ANTENNA HOLE ........................................................................................................................................ 28 5.1 / BURNING OF DYNEEMA. ............................................................................................................................... 28 5.2 ADS FUNCTIONALITY TEST IN VACUUM 1...................................................................................................... 28 5.3 DYNEEMA HEATING FUNCTIONALITY TESTS .................................................................................................. 29 5.4 ADS FUNCTIONALITY TEST IN VACUUM 2...................................................................................................... 29 6 RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 30 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 4 of 38 7 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................................... 32 8 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................... 33 9 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................................. 34 A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 BERYLCO PROPERTIES .............................................................................................................................. 34 ANTENNAS EIGEN FREQUENCIES NORMAL MODES .................................................................................... 35 2-D DRAWINGS ......................................................................................................................................... 38 COAXIAL CONNECTORS DATASHEET ......................................................................................................... 38 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 5 of 38 ABSTRACT The Swisscube, the first pico-satellite entirely built by students from Swiss universities that will be launched in space in summer 2008. This satellite will take pictures of nightglow phenomena. The antennas transmit this data to Earth and receive information from the ground station. This report is on the design of the Antenna Deployment System (ADS) of the Swisscube. As the antennas are longer than the satellite, they will be wrapped around an outside face of the satellite. They will remain winded up during launch by a polymer fibre (dyneema) attached to the structure. After launching, this fibre will be melted to deploy the antennas. The heat required for melting the fibre will be created by a current passing through a nichrome wire wrapped around the fibre. The system weights 41.3 gr. This report describes the design of the system. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 6 of 38 1 INTRODUCTION SwissCube satellite fits the Cubesat standards. These standards were defined in 1999 between the California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo and Stanford University's Space Systems Development Laboratory. The idea is to conceive a light (no more than 1 kg) and little (10 cm edgelength) satellite. This way, the satellite fits into a standardized deployment system, the Poly Picosatellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD; see Figure 1), developed at the CalPoly (California Polytechnic University). Figure 1 : The P-POD allows launching of three cubesats The SwissCube satellite is developed by the EPFL, the University of Neuchatel, and four sites of the HES-SO (Fribourg, Yverdon, Sion and St Imier). The Swisscube project has two main objectives: Give students the opportunity of participating in the development of a satellite with professional background. Observe and take pictures of the night glow phenomena (presented in Figure 2). Figure 2 : Night glow phenomena The conception of the Antenna Deployment System (ADS) started two years ago. The aim of this semester project is to continue developing the antenna deployment system, realise the definitive design and build a prototype for testing. There are two antennas on the satellite. The lengths of the antennas are determined by the telecommunication team, based on the radio frequency wave length. The first for downlink data is a Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 7 of 38 180 mm long UHF monopole antenna of 437.5 MHz frequency. The second one for uplink is a 610 mm long VHF monopole antenna using a frequency of 145.8 MHz. Actual configuration of the Swisscube allows only 82x106x8.6 mm3 volume for the ADS. Figure 3 presents this volume and its position on the frame. In this figure the volume is represented by a semi-transparent parallelepiped. There are also two other constraints: ADS must not touch the rails ADS must not go further than 6.5 mm from the rails in the orthogonal direction to their plane Figure 3 : Available space for our system The work is mainly based on prior semester projects done in Phase A , phase B and phase B/C of the SwissCube project. Those semester project were done by Mario Greber [N1], Joseph Bérard [N2], Jean-Paul Fuchs [N3] and Chris Grandgeorge & Garikoitz Madinabeitia [N4]. We mostly used this last work because it had already taken into account the information from previous reports. At the end of their report, Chris Grandgeorge & Garikoitz Madinabeitia presented a design of the Antenna Deployment System (ADS). We analyzed this design, and improved it according to the specifications and recommendations. Finally, we produced one prototype for testing. 2 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Below we present requirements for the Antenna Deployment System (ADS). These are only the driving requirements, for the full list please refer to document [N5]. They are here as a guideline Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 8 of 38 and should allow a problem free launch from the P-POD and a reliable deployment of the antennas. The values in brackets are only estimations and need to be confirmed. 2.1 Functional Requirements [4_ADS_10_01] Antenna Position The ADS shall maintain the antennas in a stowed position until it receives the command to deploy the antennas. No deployment during launch. 3_SSR_41_01 [4_ADS_10_02] Deployment ADS shall deploy the two antennas. To ensure communication with ground station. 3_SSR_61_09 2.2 Mission & Performance Requirements 2.2.1 H/W Performance [4_ADS_23_01] Fixed Position After deployment, the antennas shall be locked in a fixed position, with a precision of less than [20] deg. compared to their designed position. To ensure validity of the RF pattern model and gain 4_ADS_10_02 [4_ADS_23_02] System Power During the active deployment phase the ADS shall not consume more than [4] Watts. System power constraint. 4_ADS_10_02 [4_ADS_23_03] System Power The deployment of the antennas shall take less than [20sec] (10sec for each wire) after reception of the deployment command or signal. System power constraint. 4_ADS_10_01 2.3 Design Requirements 2.3.1 Constraints [4_ADS_31_01] Dimensions Of VHF-Antenna The ADS shall be designed to deploy a VHF monopole antenna that has a length of 610 mm and a maximum width of [3] mm. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 9 of 38 Constraints for VHF-Antenna, Calpoly specifications (6.5 mm height above the face, we want to keep some margins for solar cells) 4_ADS_10_03 [4_ADS_31_03] Dimensions Of UHF-Antenna The ADS shall be designed to deploy a UHF monopole antenna that has a length of 180 mm and a maximum width of [3] mm. Constraints for VHF-Antenna. Calpoly specifications (6.5 mm height above the face, we want to keep some margins for solar cells) 4_ADS_10_04 [4_ADS_31_04] Orthogonality Of Antenna’s Axis The deployed position of the VHF and UHF antenna’s axis shall be orthogonal to each other. Better RF performance of the antennas. 4_ADS_10_05 [4_ADS_31_10] Contaminations The entire ADS shall not lose any pieces or particles during the lifetime of the SwissCube satellite (from the take off to end of the mission) and shall not release at any time gas or particles that might contaminate the satellite Payload and solar arrays contamination issues 3_SSR_31_13 2.4 Interface Requirements 2.4.1 Structural [4_ADS_41_01] Protrude Of Fixed ADS-Configuration In the stowed configuration, the ADS shall not protrude more than 6.5 mm of the surface of the cube. Structure and configuration 4_ADS_10_01 2.4.2 Electrical [4_ADS_43_01] ADS Operation Voltage The ADS operation voltage shall be of [3.3] V [+/-7%]. Any deviation shall be discussed with the EPS and System Engineering Team. Space system power supply 3_SSR_31_16 2.4.3 Physical [4_ADS_45_02] Used Interior Volume Dimension The used volume in the interior of the satellite shall be kept less than [0.082 x 0.106 x 0.009] m3. Measurement based on the SwissCube CAD model Swisscube_v18 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 10 of 38 [4_ADS_45_03] ADS Weight The total mass of the ADS including the 2 antennas but without the plate shall be less than [25] g. Mass budget 3_SSR_45_01 2.5 Environmental Requirements 2.5.1 Thermal [4_ADS_51_01] Temperature Range The ADS shall operate within a qualification temperature range of [-50 and +70] degrees Celsius. Thermal analysis 2.5.2 Vacuum [4_ADS_53_01] Vacuum Conditions The ADS shall operate under vacuum conditions. Space environment 3_SSR_53_01 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 11 of 38 3 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS AND APPROACH In this chapter we first present the design after phase B/C. Then we present the major modification and list the interfaces with the satellite. 3.1 Design after phase B/C This ADS design is the result of the input, design changes and test from phase B/C [N4]. The satellite has two antennas; as shown in Figure 4, both parallel to the satellite face and perpendicular between them. Figure 4 : Design at the end of phase B/C. Image from [N4]. 3.2 Position of the antennas After phase B/C, once deployed, the long antenna risked to enter the field of view of the camera, see Figure 5. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 12 of 38 Figure 5 : Satellite's field of view and antennas old position To avoid it, we changed their direction in 180°. We also modify the position of the antenna connections. As asked by the mechanical responsible of the Swisscube Guillaume Roethlisberger, both antennas are glued to one guide, instead of one antenna in each guide. Thus, the design of the guides won’t be the same for both guides but one of them is considerably simplified. 3.3 Solar cells During phase B/C, the idea of putting solar cells in the ADS face of the satellite was rejected because of the risk of breaking them with deploying antennas or vibrations during launching. No fixation for sun panels was designed, but still enough place was left to put them afterwards, once the antenna system was well defined and reliable. In this phase, urged by the necessity of energy, we take the idea up again. 3.4 Interfaces We have three main interfaces: mechanical, electrical and data. 3.4.1 Mechanical interfaces The assembly will be done on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The fixation of the system with the whole satellite is made by 7 M2 screws. The plate will be attached to the frame by crossbars. In order to make the system not come out more than the 6.5 mm of the satellite, these supports are put 2.1 mm inside the satellite so that the screw heads aren’t in the way of the deploying antennas. Figure 6 indicates the position of the screws. In order to allow seeing the back of the fixations, the plate is sketched semi-transparent. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 13 of 38 Figure 6 : Mechanical interface 3.4.2 Electrical interfaces The electrical interfaces specifications [4_ADS_23_02] and [4_ADS_43_01] allows a use of 4W and 3.3V to melt the dyneema. The Electrical Responsible of the Swisscube, Fabien Jordan told us that two independent batteries would be able to deliver about 1 Ampere during 10 seconds each. To be sure we don’t go further than 1A and cause any electrical problems two resistors will give the missing resistance to assure 3.3 ohms at the ending of the nichrome wires. There is also the electrical interface between the solar panels and the satellite. The connections of our system with the Electrical Power Supply (EPS) will be done with cables provided by the EPS team. To improve the electrical interface, the plate where the ADS will be assembled, is a PCB. The electrical cables coming from the heater and solar panels will be soldered directly to this PCB. The connection with the inner subsystem of the Satellite will be done by Omnetics connector. 3.4.3 Radio Frequency interfaces The Radio Frequency (RF) connection of the antennas was done by connectors in phase B/C. For them, SMC coaxial connectors were used, but the female coaxial cable connectors were too big to insert them inside the satellite. So after discussion with Fabien Jordan, we decided to solder the copper wire directly to the antenna and the grounding strand to the PCB (see Figure 13). The coaxial cable has a SMT connector at the end, Figure 7. For more information, please refer to Appendix A.4. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 14 of 38 Figure 7 : SMT STECKER coaxial connector. 3.5 Approach During this project, the approach was the following: 1. Identify the problem to be solved (e.g. RF connection between antenna and the inside of the satellite). 2. Take into account the assumptions and discuss them with the project responsible if they are not clear enough. 3. Think out different solutions for the problem. 4. Reveal the good and bad points of each solution; choose the best one after discussion with the project assistant. 5. Perform pertinent tests if necessary. 6. Validate the solution. If not, back to point 3. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 15 of 38 4 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION Phase B/C [N4] proposed some recommendations to perform the ADS, based on their test results. Change guides design to avoid any obstruction for the antenna deployments Isolate the plate from the nichrome. Isolate the antennas with Kapton Keep antennas inside the rails before deployment Improve antennas assembly with the guides. The glue is not enough. Other recommendations were done in the “Swisscube Meeting Minutes: Delta-PDR Comments and Actions Items” [N6] that took place the 5th September 2007. Know if antennas will be unprotected after launch since high temperatures might perturb the deployment (burning of the wire might not be possible anymore) and suggests that we consider this failure possibility. May need a cover on the dyneema as radiation to space might make the thermal heat leak bigger than expected: thermal analysis, possibly test. Deployment mechanism: wire needs to go through a small hole on the antenna– make it bigger. In relation to the first two bullets of Delta-PDR comments, previous test have been done during phase B/C and everything concerning dyneema has worked [N7]. The thermal requirement [4_ADS_51_01], establishes a maximum of +70°C temperature. Tests were done in this temperature and the ADS worked. Furthermore, dyneema melts around 195°C. Concerning the energy loss to the space, there will be a PCB plate with solar cells over the heater, and again, tests made in phase B/C showed power was enough. Anyway, test done in the vacuum chamber with the whole ADS is explained in [N9]. 4.1 Solution summary In order to see changes made after phase B/C and used solutions, in Table 1 we present a description of each part of the assembly with the evolution till actual design. PHASE B/C UHF +Z ANTENNAS’ ORIENTATION VHF +X - VHF enters the field of view ANTENNAS’ POSITION One on each guide + independent between them ACTUAL DESIGN UHF -Z VHF –X + VHF doesn’t enter the field of view Both on the lower guide + more movement freedom for the upper guide Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 16 of 38 Both same design + easier design GUIDES 5 pieces per guide + easier design - lot of pieces Different design + independent between them One piece guides - design complexity + easier machining + less pieces Melting device Tensors + more robust - dyneema on the antenna - passing holes + simpler & no holes Not included Included + simpler - more complex - less available energy + more available energy SMC connectors Soldered cable - too big +lighter + proper + simple Through a hole To PCB DYNEEMA HEATING SOLAR CELLS RF CONNECTIONS ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS + proper Table 1 : Solution summary 4.2 Design of the ADS Both antennas are glued to the lower guide. The VHF antenna goes over the UHF and around the guides for two loops and a quarter. A dyneema wire attached to the melting device and going through two nichrome wires, holds it on at the end of it. Current passing through nichrome wires heats up and melts the dyneema. Once released, the antennas deploy with their own spring force. Over all this, there is a PCB with a sun sensor and solar cells, attached to the plate with 4 spacers. Figure 8 presents the general overview of the design. For detailed drawings, refer to the Appendix A.3 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 17 of 38 Figure 8 : General view of the assembly without the solar cells 4.2.1 Guides The antennas are rolled over the guides during the launch (before deployment) and kept in place by the dyneema wire. Phase B [N7] report said that the minimal radius for the antennas was 27mm but during phase B/C the radius used was 30 mm. We will continue using this size bending radiuses, so the guides are 30 mm radius quarter circles with a straight part in between and both antennas are glued to the Lower guide. It has a straight part to allow the fixation of the UHF antenna, while the VHF antenna is fixed to the middle straight part. As in the previous prototype gluing the antennas from only one side caused problems (the antennas took off very easily), in this prototype the antenna is glued from both sides (Figure 10). To ensure antennas immobilisation we will do 2 little holes (1mm diam.) to pass two locking pins trough the antennas and the guide (Figure 9). Figure 9 : Lock pins Although the pieces are more complex, as a recommendation of the workshop team, the guides are machined in one unique piece to have less pieces and loose less machining time. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 18 of 38 Figure 10 : Lower guide (left) and Upper guide (right) 4.2.2 Dyneema heating Concerning the dyneema heating, we first continue developing the melting device from the previous phase. As we can see in Figure 11, two 3 turn coils of nichrome were attached to the POM piece. The melting device was protected from heating by silver coated copper cylinders and everything was attached by a top screwed to the plate. Figure 11 : Old melting device. Dyneema through nichrome (without the top). We did tests to ensure the system functionality [N9]. The results showed us that the system worked, but dyneema risked to stay wrapped in the coils impeding antennas deployment, so we decided to change the entire melting device. The new system consists in two tensors and 2 arcs; one to fix the dyneema and the other to guide it. To ensure redundancy, a short nichrome wire is soldered on each tensor wile each tensor is in one side of the dyneema. The tensors are attached to the plate by two screws. To ensure dyneema is well tightened and having a good contact with the nichrome, once the antennas attached, the tensors can move thanks to longitudinal holes done on them and thus tight the dyneema. There are no more coils but just one contact point, that’s enough to melt the dyneema as we can see in paragraph 5.3. Furthermore, with this new system, we avoid dyneema passing through holes, avoiding the risk of retaining. It will only pass through the guiding arc of 2.5 x 3.5mm. Figure 8 shows the entire system and Figure 12 the heating system. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 19 of 38 Figure 12 : New heating system for dyneema During the project, requirement [4_ADS_23_02] (available power to deploy the antennas), became more strict. Now on, we have only 0.5 Ampere available. We tried to melt the dyneema with this new current and the previous nichrome (N80, Ø 0.16 mm,XX Ω/m, provided by Elettrotermica Gandolfi) but we realized that in room conditions, the wire wasn’t able to melt it. That’s why we change the nichrome. The last one is a N60 nichrome with Ø 0.064mm and 343.5 ohm/meter resistance. Even if room condition tests showed that this new wire was able to melt the dyneema with 0.5A and it tolerate this current itself, we did deployment tests in vacuum (paragraph 5.4). The results were pretty different (refer to [N12]). With a 0.5A current, the nichrome of the first heater heated and broke up itself before heating the dyneema, leaving the antennas undeployed. We saw with the second heater that 150mA were enough to melt the dyneema and 320mA were able to melt the nichrome. 4.2.3 Antennas We use two straight and flat 3 mm wide and 0.3 mm thick antennas glued to the guides. VHF antenna is 610 mm long and UHF antenna 180 mm. The antennas material is described in paragraph 4.4.2. The long antenna has a hole at its end, used to attach the dyneema through it to hold the antennas in bent position during transportation. The little piece of dyneema that will stay attached in the end of the antenna won’t influence RF transmission. The antennas assembly with the guides is done by gluing, see Figure 13. They stay sticked to the glue, but the glue doesn’t stay with the guide. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 20 of 38 To ensure antennas immobilisation we will do 2 little holes (1mm diam.) to pass two locking pins trough the antennas and the guide. Thus the antennas won’t move. Jean François Zürcher from the Laboratory of Electromagnetics and Acoustics (LEMA) at the EPFL, told us that influence of those pins should be negligible. To ensure RF connection (Figure 13) antennas are directly soldered to the copper wire and the copper mesh is soldered to the plate (mass). Notice in Figure 13 that the mesh is going over the guide, but will go under it (between the guide and the plate). Figure 13 : RF connection. Instead of Kapton the copper mesh will be soldered to the mass (under the guide). Notice also the antenna glued to the guide. As recommended in phase B/C [N4], to avoid shortcut if an informatics bug occurs before deploying, or if antennas remain wind after melting of the dyneema, we isolate antennas from each other. It is done by taping Kapton (50 μm thickness) on the external phase of both antennas, Figure 14. Figure 14 : External part of the antenna covered with Kapton Jean François Zurcher, confirmed us this would have no influence in the transmission performance of the antennas. Even if we haven’t done specific tests, we have seen that the behaviour of the antennas in bending doesn’t change much with or without Kapton. 4.2.4 Solar panels In this project, we insert solar panels on our satellite face. In order to achieve it, we use the free space left in the previous phase. Two solar panels are glued to a PCB that will be attached to the Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 21 of 38 plate through 4 spacers. There will also be a sun sensor between both cells. Electrical connections will be done by cables going from the solar panels to the PCB plate where they will be soldered. Figure 15 : Solar panels on the ADS 4.3 Material summary NUMBER NAME QUANTITY MATERIAL 1 Plate 1 FR4 2 Lower guide 1 POM 3 Upper guide 1 POM 4 Tensor 2 FR4 5 Arc 3 Copper 6 Nichrome wire 2 Nichrome 7 Dyneema 8 Dyneema Electrical cable (for heater and solar cells) 9 VHF antenna 1 Cupro beryllium 10 UHF antenna 1 Cupro beryllium 11 Lock pin 4 Steel 12 PCB 1 FR4 13 Solar cell 2 14 Sun sensor 1 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 22 of 38 15 Coax. Cable & connector 2 16 Spacer 4 17 Omnetics 1 18 Screw M2x10 low head 9 Stainless steel 19 Screw M2x5 low head 4 Stainless steel 20 Monoblock Screw 4 Stainless steel 21 Nut 6 Stainless steel 22 Kapton Aluminium Kapton Table 2 : Material summary 4.3.1 Guides At the beginning POM was thought for the guides of the prototypes and then Vespel for the final version. POM has been used for the prototypes and their tests with very good results. So we don’t really see the necessity to use Vespel knowing that POM provides enough performance at a better prize. Here is a short abstract from the phase A report, Antenna Deployment System by Mario Greber [N1], which summarizes POM’s properties. • POM (Poly-oxy-methylene) Temperature range: -50°C to 115°C Characteristics: Good mechanical properties, high stiffness and hardness. Dimensional stability and high shock resistance. Very good machinability. 4.3.2 Antennas The antennas material have not changed since phase B. The chosen material is BERYLCO 10 (a beryllium copper alloy). To learn more about its properties, see Appendix 1. The antennas have Kapton sticked in their external part. Kapton is a gluing tape used in Space projects. 4.3.3 Heating wire The material chosen for heating wire is Nichrome. Nichrome is well known in hobby rockets techniques for its low amperage application. Many CubeSats have successfully used it. In our case we will use N-60, 0.064mm diameter and 343.5 ohm/meter nichrome provided by MTE. 4.3.4 Polymer band Nylon is used in other CubeSat. However, phase B report suggested use of dyneema instead of nylon for its better mechanical and thermal properties (it melts at 144-152°C). The determining argument is that dyneema doesn’t smoke when being melted; this prevents contamination of the field of view of the camera or sun sensors. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 23 of 38 4.3.5 Plates The base plate, the plate where solar cells will be glued and the tensors will all be PCBs. FR4 is their material, with printed copper circuits. Thus we can solder electric staff directly on them. 4.3.6 Spacers To insert the solar cells in “our” face of the satellite, we need to solder them to a PCB. This PCB will be glued to 4 aluminium spacers that make possible it’s attachment to the rest of the satellite. 4.4 Mass budget Table 3 summarizes all the parts of our system and the interfaces with their weight. Our subsystem weight reaches 41.3 grams, but that’s only because we have added the PCB for solar cells. Without it, we weight 20.8 gr. NUMBER NAME QUANTITY WEIGHT (GRAMS) PER PIECE TOTAL WEIGHT 1 Plate 1 24 24 2 Lower guide 1 4.58 4.60 3 Upper guide 1 2.607 2.60 4 Tensor 2 0.82 1.65 5 Arc 3 0.124 0.40 6 Resistor 2 0.2 (not confirmed) 0.4 7 Nichrome wire 2 -------- -------- 8 Dyneema 9 Electrical cable (for heater) 10 VHF antenna (with Kapton) 1 4.83 4.85 11 UHF antenna (with Kapton) 1 1.426 1.45 Lock pin 4 0.05 0.2 12 PCB 1 20.5 20.5 13 Solar cell 2 2.45 4.90 14 Sun sensor 1 1 1 15 Coax. Cable & connector 2 0.462 0.90 16 Spacer 4 0.1643 0.65 17 Omnetics 1 5 5 18 Screw M2x10 low head 4 0.23 0.90 19 Screw M2x5 low head 8 0.15 1.2 20 Nut 8 0.114 0.90 -------0.10 TOTAL 76.2 OUR SUBSYSTEM 41.3 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 24 of 38 Table 3 : Mass budget. In grey, our subsystem 4.5 Eigen frequencies study Eigen frequencies from the antennas are a very useful data, for example to have an idea if the antennas will disturb the attitude control of the satellite. So we used two different ways to calculate them, and thus validate the results; On one hand analytical calculation and on the other finite element modelling using Abaqus. 4.5.1 Analytically solved The analytical formulation for Eigen frequencies for propped-cantilever beam is [N11]; fn = 2 Rn 2 ⋅π E⋅I μ ⋅ S ⋅ L4 (1) Where; Rn: Is given for the first 5 solutions R(1)= 1.8751; R(2)= 4.6941; R(3)= 7.8547; R(4)= 10.9955; R(5)= 14.1372 E: Modulus of elasticity (Young) = 132 kN/mm I: Section Inertia= b*h3/12= 6.75e-15 m4 μ: Specific volume= 8750 kg/m3 S: Section= b*h = 0.003*0.0003= 9e-7 m2 L: Length = Short antenna 0.18 m / Long antenna 0.61 m. The results for the first 5 modes of both antennas can be seen in Table 4. EIGEN FREQUENCY (HZ) SHORT ANTENNA LONG ANTENNA 1 5.809484 0.5058 2 36.407 3.17 3 101.94 8.876 4 199.764 17.394 5 330.229 28.754 Table 4 : Eigen frequencies analytically solved for both antennas Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 25 of 38 4.5.2 Finite Element modelling (Abaqus) We first modelled the beam using a 3D linear mesh but the results were erroneously ±10 times lower. This unexpected result took us to model the propped cantilever beam using a 3D quadratic mesh, much more precise than the linear one. In Table 5 we can see the results. The 3rd mode doesn’t appear in the analytical calculations because it’s a lateral mode and the equation used doesn’t take them into account. The shape of some modes for the short antenna can be seen in Appendix A.3. Note that they are the same for both antennas. EIGEN FREQUENCY (HZ) SHORT ANTENNA LONG ANTENNA 1 5.8317 0.50604 2 36.547 3.1724 3 58.122 (lateral mode) 5.0590 (lateral mode) 4 102.34 8.8830 5 200.55 17.407 Table 5 : Eigen frequencies modelled for both antennas 4.6 Antennas deployment effect over the satellite While antennas are kept bend they store energy up. This energy is liberated when the antennas deploy and becomes kinetic energy that makes the satellite spin on its axis (we will do the calculations in 2D). The stored energy can be calculated as the energy needed to bend a beam [N10]; 1 ρ M E⋅I = (2) dθ = M dx E⋅I (3) dU = 1 ⋅ Mdθ 2 (4) 1 E⋅I 1 E ⋅ I ⋅l ⋅ ∫ 2 dx = ⋅ 20ρ 2 ρ2 l U= With the material and geometrical characteristics of the antennas; [ m] E cuprober = 131 ⋅ 10 9 N I= 2 b ⋅ h 3 0.003 ⋅ 0.00033 = = 6.75 ⋅ 10 −15 m 4 12 12 (5) The long antennas is 0.61m long and the short one 0.18m. We suppose they both have the same bending radius, that is 0.03m. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 26 of 38 U long = 1 E ⋅ I ⋅ l 1 131 ⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 6.75 ⋅ 10 −15 ⋅ 0.61 ⋅ =⋅ = 0.2996[J ] 2 ρ2 2 0.03 2 U short = 1 E ⋅ I ⋅ l 1 131 ⋅ 10 9 ⋅ 6.75 ⋅ 10 −15 ⋅ 0.18 ⋅ =⋅ = 0.0884[J ] 2 ρ2 2 0.03 2 Supposing all stored energy will become kinetic energy; E= 1 ⋅ I ⋅ω 2 2 (6) With ω as the unknown and; I= ( ) M ⋅ a 2 + b 2 for a square parallelepiped spinning on its longitudinal axis. 12 (0.2996 + 0.0884) = 1 ⋅ [ ( (7) ) 1 ⋅ 0.12 + 0.12 ⋅ ω 2 2 12 ω = 21.5777 rad sec = 206.0525[rpm] This is only a rough calculation, but we think it gives an idea of the non negligible effect of the antenna deployment in the satellite detumbling, even if the damping of the antenna is neglected. 4.7 Calculation for the position for the end of the long antenna As it has been said, the long antenna makes two loops and a quarter. We would like to be more precise to be able to say where its end will be. Supposing the long antenna is 610mm long, the guides radius are 30mm, L the big distance between the guides and l the short one, the distance, after 2 turns and a quarter, going out from the lower guide would be; ⎡ ⎛ π ⋅ 30 π ⋅ 30 π ⋅ 30 π ⋅ 30 ⎫ π ⋅ 30 ⎞⎤ ⎧ π ⋅ 30 ⎟⎥ +L+ +6+ +l + + 10 + + 1⎬ + d = ⎢610 − ⎜ 5 + 2 ⋅ ⎨ ⎜ 2 2 2 2 2 ⎟⎦ ⎩2 ⎭ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 27 of 38 Figure 16 : distance d after 2 turns and a quarter For different distances between the guides the distance d will approximately be (it will also depend how tight the antennas will be bent, so it could be a bit smaller) l (mm) L (mm) d (mm) 23 29.5 41.88 24 30.5 37.88 25 31.5 33.88 26 32.5 29.88 27 33.5 25.88 28 34.5 21.88 Table 6 : Ending of the long antenna Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 28 of 38 5 TESTS Before doing the tests we took into account all the recommendations and built a prototype (see 2D drawings in Appendix A.2.) 5.1 Long antenna hole / Burning of dyneema. When dyneema melts, a “little melted ball of dyneema” can appear. The risk of forming this little ball that could hind the antenna deployment has to be taken into consideration. That’s why we did different tests melting the dyneema by different methods (burn it with a lighter, melt with a soldering iron and melt it with nichrome wire). When dyneema was burned with the lighter and the soldering iron, a little “melted ball of dyneema” appeared. This “ball” was bigger on the side where the dyneema stayed still than the side where dyneema moved. With the soldering iron, this ball was negligible and with the nichrome the ball was invisible for the eyesight. Figure 17 : Left) Melted with the lighter and stayed still. Centre) Melted with the lighter and moved out. Right) Melted with soldering iron Even thought, as you can see in Figure 17, there should be no problem with this little ball passing trough antennas hole, because the dyneema wont pass anymore through the hole but will stay attached to the antenna. As we changed the heaters, dyneema will have to pass trough an arc (much bigger) and no more through holes (Figure 12) 5.2 ADS functionality test in vacuum 1. We build a prototype with the new design taking into account all the recommendations and we tested it in a vacuum chamber at -51°C in RUAG Nyon. We did this test with the old melting device (Please refer to paragraph 4.2.2). With the first wire the dyneema melt within 2 seconds, but it was wrapped around the nichrome too tight, so it didn’t move and the antennas stayed undeployed. These deployed only when the second wire was activated and took only 2 seconds. To avoid this Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 29 of 38 problem, we suggest using a bigger diameter for the nichrome coils. For more specific information please refer to [N9]. 5.3 Dyneema heating functionality tests After changing the heating system (Please refer to paragraph 4.2.2) and the nichrome, we did some tests in room conditions (1 bar and ±20ºC). We tried to deploy the antennas 8 times (giving current 4 times to each nichrome wire). Dyneema melt in 2 seconds and the antennas always deployed. Moreover no “melted ball” was observed in the melting points of the dyneema. 5.4 ADS functionality test in vacuum 2. To be sure the new prototype with the new heating system works also in space conditions (vacuum and -50°C (worst temperature conditions to melt)), we did once more a test in RUAG Nyon. Seizing the opportunity, we also tested the new nichrome in vacuum. We gradually raise the current through the nichrome until it broke up. Thus we were able to see the maximal current in vacuum for the nichrome. The results of the nichrome test showed that it melts with an average value of ± 277.5 mA. (280 mA, 250 mA, 260 mA and 320mA (this last one after melting the dyneema)). With these results it was predictable that the nichrome would melt before heating the dyneema with the planned 500mA, as it finally happened with the first heater. For the second one, we started heating the dyneema from 0A until it broke up. It melt the dyneema with 150 mA and broke up itself with 320 mA. The value for the current should be between these two values. For more specific information please refer to [N12]. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 30 of 38 6 RECOMMENDATIONS Hereby we give some information that can be useful to assemble the system. POM was provided by Dinatec, dyneema can be bought in any fishing shop, nichrome was provided by MTE, the arcs come from the Com lab and the lock pins from Microtechnic workshop. To stick Kapton on the antennas use a very sharp cutting edge e.g. a new razorblade to be very close to its geometry. First pass the RF cables through the plate and guide, then solder them to the antennas and the plate and finally glue the antennas to the guide inserting the lock pins. Make sure antennas stay horizontal when gluing, to avoid any problem at the deployment Bend the antennas before assembling solar cells. First attach dyneema to the long antenna and then pass it through the nichrome to attach it to the arc. First attach the dyneema to the arc and only then tighten the tensors. Heat the nichrome that is on the other side of the ending of the antenna up first to avoid any contamination. If it’s done the opposite way, the piece of dyneema between the two nichromes could come off. During these tests, we realised the importance of the attaching for the dyneema. We have to be sure that this attachment doesn’t go into the guides. This could cause problems; the dyneema would be no more in tension and the antenna could stay undeployed. Figure 18 : Left) Dyneema attached correctly. Right) Dyneema attached the wrong way. Please note that Figure 18 are old photos. In the new prototype, dyneema won’t pass anymore through the antennas hole but it will stay wrapped. The recommendation to avoid problems remains the same, but to prevent it, passes the dyneema on the antenna and not under (it could stay uptight between the guide and the plate) Sandpaper down the arcs and the antennas to avoid any cutting problem with the dyneema, specially the hole and its surroundings. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 31 of 38 Do not insert the arcs to much in the PCB so that we have no problem to pass the dyneema through Our recommendations and propositions for the future of the Antenna Deployment System are: Concretise the position of the electrical stuff such as Omnetics. Obtain aluminium spacers for the next prototype Do a vibration analyse to be sure that antennas don’t get out and don’t cut the dyneema during launch. Do tests in vacuum conditions with the new nichrome wire and the new values of the current. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 32 of 38 7 CONCLUSION We now have a new working prototype of the Antenna Deployment System and we know exactly the energy we need to deploy the antennas. Mechanical, electrical and RF connections have been defined. Both antennas are in the plane orthogonal to the Earth surface. Because of the decoupling of the antennas, one of them will be pointing towards the earth. This is for ideal position, but in reality the satellite will be in continuous movement and there will still be enough moments when this antenna will be able to downlink data. The Eigen frequencies of the antennas and their deployment effect on the satellite have been calculated. We achieved to integrate solar cells in the system, and the melting device was improved and now works correctly. We also managed to reduce the total weight of the system to 20.8 gr. Positions for the electrical stuff (connexions, omnetics connector, resistors) have to be defined and then, including the solar cells, the whole system should be tested once more in launch and space conditions. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 33 of 38 8 REFERENCES [N1] Mario Greber, Phase A: Antenna Deployment System, EPFL, 2006 [N2] Bérard Joseph, Phase A: RF Antenna, EPFL, 2006 [N3] Jean-Paul Fuchs, Phase B: Antenna Deployment System, EPFL, 2006 [N4] Chris Grandgeorge, Garikoitz Madinabeitia, Antenna Deployment System, S3-BC-ADS-2-3Report, EPFL, 2007 [N5] Chistina Mpakalis, Antenna Deployment System, S3-C-ADS-1-3-Specifications, EPFL, 2007 [N6] Noca M. Phase B/C SwissCube Meeting Minutes: Delta-PDR Comments and Actions Items, September 5, 2007 [N7] Chris Grandgeorge, Garikoitz Madinabeitia, Functionnal test for the Antenna Deployment System Test report, S3-BC-ADS-1-0-Vacuum test report, EPFL, 2007 [N8] Chris Grandgeorge, Garikoitz Madinabeitia, Igor Bilogrevic, Radio Frequency test for the Antenna Deployment System - Test report, S3-BC-ADS-1-0-RF test, EPFL, 2007 [N9] Garikoitz Madinabeitia S3-C-ADS-2-1-Vacuum_test_report, EPFL, 2007 [N10] Del Pedro M. Gmür Th. Eléments de Mécanique des Structures, pag.70-85, PPUR, 2001 [N11] http://www.univ-lemans.fr/enseignements/physique/02/meca/barrevib.html [N12] Garikoitz Madinabeitia S3-C-ADS-1-1-Complete functional test for the Antenna Deployment System. Test report, EPFL, 2007 Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 34 of 38 9 APPENDIX A.1 Berylco properties Figure 19 : Properties for Berylco. Source: NGK Berylco France Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 35 of 38 A.2 Antennas Eigen frequencies normal modes Figure 20 : First mode. Freq=5.8 Hz Figure 21 : Second mode. Freq=36.5 Hz Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 36 of 38 Figure 22 : Third mode (lateral mode) . Freq=58.1 Hz Figure 23 :Fourth mode. Freq=102.3 Hz Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 37 of 38 Figure 24 : Fifth mode. Freq=200.5 Hz Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc Issue : 1 Rev : 1 Date : 16/01/2008 Page : 38 of 38 A.3 2-D drawings See separate sheets A.4 Coaxial connectors datasheet See separate sheets. Ref.: S3-C-STRU-1-1-Antenna Deployment System.doc ...
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