Lec6_Hospital_associated_infection

Lec6_Hospital_associated_infection - Hospital Associated...

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Hospital Associated Infections
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Hospital Associated Infections Nosocomial infections are now more commonly referred to as Hospital Associated Infections (HAI). They are defined as infections that develop in a patient who has been hospitalized for at least 48-72 hours and who was not incubating at the time of admission. It is acceptable if they were incubating at the time of admission if they were recently hospitalized.
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Hospital Associated Infections Numerous factors influence differences in transmission risks among the various healthcare settings. These include: the population characteristics (e.g., increased susceptibility to infections, type and prevalence of indwelling devices), intensity of care, exposure to environmental sources, length of stay, frequency of interaction between patients/residents with each other and with HCWs.
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Hospital Associated Infections Infection transmission risks are present in all hospital settings. However, certain hospital settings and patient populations have unique conditions that predispose patients to infection and merit special mention. These are often sentinel sites for the emergence of new transmission risks that may be unique to that setting or present opportunities for transmission to other settings in the hospital.
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Hospital Associated Infections Intensive care units (ICUs) serve patients who are immunocompromised by disease state and/or by treatment modalities, as well as patients with major trauma, respiratory failure and other life-threatening conditions (e.g., myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, overdoses, strokes, gastrointestinal bleeding, renal failure, hepatic failure, multi-organ system failure, and the extremes of age).
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Hospital Associated Infections Although ICUs account for a relatively small proportion of hospitalized patients, infections acquired in these units accounted for >20% of all HAIs. In the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) system, 26.6% of HAIs were reported from ICU and high risk nursery (NICU) patients in 2002. This patient population has increased susceptibility to colonization and infection, especially with MDROs and Candida sp., because of underlying diseases and conditions, the invasive medical devices and technology used in their care (e.g. central venous catheters and other intravascular devices, mechanical ventilators, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), hemodialysis/-filtration, pacemakers, implantable left ventricular assist devices), the frequency of contact with healthcare personnel, prolonged length of stay, and prolonged exposure to antimicrobial agents.
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Hospital Associated Infections Burn wounds can provide optimal conditions for colonization, infection, and transmission of pathogens; infection acquired by burn patients is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality. In patients with a burn injury involving >
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Lec6_Hospital_associated_infection - Hospital Associated...

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