Lec7_Viral_Hepatitis

Lec7_Viral_Hepatitis - Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis The 5...

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Hepatitis
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Viral Hepatitis The 5 viruses that are collectively known as the hepatitis viruses are: Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C (previously known as non A- non B) Hepatitis delta Hepatitis E
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Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver cancer and the most common reason for liver transplantation. In the United States, an estimated 1.2 million Americans are living with chronic Hepatitis B and 3.2 are living with chronic Hepatitis C. Many do not know they are infected. Each year an estimated 25,000 persons become infected with Hepatitis A; 43,000 with Hepatitis B, and 17,000 with Hepatitis C.
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Viral Hepatitis When they occur, the signs and symptoms of viral hepatitis can include: Fever Fatigue Loss of appetite Nausea Vomiting Abdominal pain Jaundice Dark urine Clay-colored stool Joint pain
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Viral Hepatitis
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Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is classified with the enterovirus group of the Picornaviridae family. HAV has a single molecule of RNA surrounded by a small (27 nm diameter) protein capsid. Many other picornaviruses cause human disease, including: Polioviruses Coxsackieviruses Echoviruses Rhinoviruses
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Hepatitis A
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Hepatitis A Hepatitis A has an incubation period of approximately 28 days (range: 15–50 days). HAV replicates in the liver and is shed in high concentrations in feces from 2 weeks before to 1 week after the onset of clinical illness. HAV infection produces a self-limited disease that does not result in chronic infection or chronic liver disease.
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Hepatitis A Acute Illness In children aged <6 years, 70% of infections are asymptomatic; if illness does occur, it is typically not accompanied by jaundice. Among older children and adults, infection is typically symptomatic, with jaundice occurring in >70% of patients. Symptoms usually last less than 2 months, although 10%–15% of symptomatic persons have prolonged or relapsing disease for up to 6 months.
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Hepatitis A HAV infection is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route, by either person-to-person contact or consumption of contaminated food or water. Although viremia occurs early in infection and can persist for several weeks after onset of symptoms, bloodborne transmission of HAV is uncommon.
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Hepatitis A Diagnosis Hepatitis A is initially diagnosed clinically. The clinical case definition for acute viral hepatitis is: Discrete onset of symptoms (e.g., nausea, anorexia, fever, malaise, or abdominal pain) Jaundice or elevated serum aminotransferase levels Because the clinical characteristics are the same for all types of acute viral hepatitis, hepatitis A diagnosis must be confirmed by a positive serologic test for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to hepatitis A virus.
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Hepatitis A Diagnosis
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Treatment There is no specific treatment for Hepatitis A, however, short-term protection is available from immune globulin. It can be given before and within 2 weeks
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2010 for the course EPI 220 taught by Professor A during the Fall '10 term at UCLA.

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Lec7_Viral_Hepatitis - Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis The 5...

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