Lec8_Diarrheal_Disease - Diarrheal Diseases Diarrhea...

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Diarrheal Diseases
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Diarrhea Diarrhea is: stools of decreased consistency and increased volume due to imbalance of secretion and absorption of water and salts in the intestine Diarrhea can be: Noninfectious Infectious Dysentery is a diarrheal disease defined by the presence of blood in loose or liquid stools.
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Diarrhea Infectious diarrhea can have multiple pathophysiologic processes: Secretory (noninflammatory) diarrhea: Toxin stimulates chloride secretion and reduces absorption of sodium and water ( V. cholerae) Organism reduces small bowel absorptive villus structure and function (rotavirus) Invasive (inflammatory) diarrhea: Organism penetrates and damages cells of intestinal mucosa ( Shigella )
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Diarrheal Disease Epidemiology Diarrheal diseases occur most frequently in conditions of: Poor environmental sanitation Poor hygiene Inadequate water supplies Poverty Limited education
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Diarrheal Disease Epidemiology The annual mortality from diarrhea in children less than five years old in developing countries is estimated at 1.8 million deaths. This number has decreased from 4.5 million deaths in last 20 years. The annual incidence of diarrheal disease episodes in children less than five years old in developing countries has a median incidence rate of 3.2 episodes per child. This was derived from the population and the known fact that there are approximately two billion diarrheal episodes globally each year.
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Diarrheal Disease Epidemiology
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Diarrheal Disease Epidemiology All of the diarrheal agents are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Food (indirect) Water (indirect) Hands (direct) Sex (direct)
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Diarrheal Disease Epidemiology The infectious dose of the organism can affect transmission. If the organism has a low infectious dose ( Shigella , Giardia , Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium ) it can be transmitted by person-to-person contact If the organism has a high infectious dose (Salmonella, E. coli, vibrios) it is usually transmitted by water or food There tends to be a seasonality to diarrheal diseases that is seen regardless of their route of transmission.
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Diarrheal Disease Epidemiology Some of the known risk factors for diarrheal disease include: Suboptimal breastfeeding Contaminated complementary foods Poor quality of water Poor sanitation and hygiene Gastric hypochlorhydria Genetic factors Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies vitamin A deficiency zinc deficiency
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Diarrheal Disease Treatment Most diarrheal disease can be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. Patients can be treated with oral rehydration solution, a prepackaged mixture of sugar and salts to be mixed with water and drunk in large amounts.
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