Lec9_Measles - Measles Measles Measles also known as...

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Measles
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Measles Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly contagious viral disease, which affects mostly children. Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. In developing countries, 1-5% of children with measles die from complications of the disease. This case-fatality rate may be as high as 25% among people who are displaced, malnourished and have poor access to health care.
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Measles Family: Paramyxoviridae Genus: Morbillivirus Spherical Single-stranded, negative sense RNA virus
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Measles Source: CDC PHIL
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Measles Virus Budding from the Cell
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Measles Basic Phylogenetic Tree
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Measles Antigenically stable Major proteins Hemagglutinin (H): receptor binding protein Fusion (F): membrane fusion and virus entry Nucleoprotein (N): most variable genetically Sensitive to UV light and heat
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Measles Pathogenesis Measles is transmitted through respiratory droplets. Infectious virus is carried to the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract of a susceptible host. The incubation period is approximately 10-14 days, during which the virus replicates and spreads within the infected host. Initial virus replication occurs in epithelial cells at the point of entry in the upper respiratory tract.
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Measles Pathogenesis From the respiratory epithelium the virus spreads to the regional lymphatics. A primary viremia then occurs, in which the virus replicates at the site of inoculation and in the reticuloendothelial tissues. A secondary viremia follows, in which the virus infects and replicates in the skin, conjunctiva, respiratory tract, and other distant organs.
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Measles Pathogenesis The measles rash is thought to be due to a hypersensitivity reaction. Cell-mediated responses are the main line of defense against measles, as evidenced by the fact that people with cell-mediated deficiencies develop severe measles infection. Immunity to wild-type measles is believed to be lifelong.
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Clinical Features of Measles
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Clinical Features of Measles Source: CDC PHIL
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Clinical Features of Measles Source: CDC PHIL
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Clinical Features of Measles Source: Perry RT, et al. The Clinical Significance of Measles: A Review.
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Clinical Features of Measles Source: CDC PHIL
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Clinical Features of Measles Source: William Moss
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Clinical Features of Measles Source: CDC PHIL
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Clinical Features of Measles In uncomplicated measles, clinical recovery begins soon after the appearance of the rash. Complications occur in up to 40% of measles cases. The risk of complications is increased by the extremes of age and malnutrition. Complications of measles have been described in almost every organ system.
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