Lec13_Emerging_and_reemerging_ID

Lec13_Emerging_and_reemerging_ID - Emerging and Re-emerging...

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Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
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The Infectious Disease Transition Infectious disease mortality in the United States decreased markedly during most of the 20th century. Following World War II, it was widely believed that humans were winning the war against infectious microbes. Coupled with improvements in urban sanitation and water quality, vaccines and antibiotics dramatically reduced the incidence of infectious diseases.
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The Infectious Disease Transition
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The Infectious Disease Transition But: In 1950, penicillin began to lose its power to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. In 1957 and 1958, new strains of influenza emerged in China and spread around the world. In the 1970’s, there was a resurgence of sexually transmitted diseases and new diseases identified in the US and elsewhere (Legionnaire’s Disease, toxic shock syndrome, Lyme’s disease). During the 1980’s, HIV emerged as a new infection and tuberculosis re-emerged in an antibiotic resistant form. Between 1980 and 1992, the death rate from infectious diseases increased 58%.
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Source: The New York Times, November 5, 2010 Running for Your Life
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DM Morens et al. Nature 463 , 122-122 (2010) doi:10.1038/nature08554 Infectious Diseases cause ~26% of all deaths worldwide
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Emerging Infectious Diseases As defined by the Institute of Medicine, Emerging infectious diseases are: Those whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future Emergence may be due to the spread of a new agent, to the recognition of an infection that has been present in the population but has gone undetected, or to the realization that an established disease has an infectious origin
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Re-emerging Infectious Diseases As defined by the Institute of Medicine, re - emerging infectious diseases are: Diseases that once were major health problems globally or in a particular country, and then declined dramatically, but are again becoming health problems for a significant proportion of the population
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Emerging Infections in the World and US since 1969 1969 Lassa Fever VHF 1973 Rotavirus Enteritis/Diarrhea 1976 Cryptosporidium Enteritis/Diarrhea 1977 Ebola virus VHF 1977 Legionella Legionnaire’s dz 1977 Hantaan virus VHF w/ renal flr 1977 Campylobacter Enteritis/Diarrhea 1980 HTLV-1 Lymphoma 1981 Toxin prod. S.aureus Toxic Shock Synd. 1982 E.coli 0157:H7 HUS 1982 HTLV-II Leukemia 1982 Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disease
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World and US since 1969 1983 HIV AIDS 1983 Helicobacter pylori Peptic ulcer dz 1988 Hepatitis E Hepatitis 1989 Hepatitis C Hepatitis 1990 Guanarito virus VHF 1991 Encephalitozoon Disseminated dz 1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 Cholera 1992 Bartonella henselae Cat scratch dz 1993 Sin Nombre virus Hanta Pulm. Synd. 1994
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2010 for the course EPI 220 taught by Professor A during the Fall '10 term at UCLA.

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Lec13_Emerging_and_reemerging_ID - Emerging and Re-emerging...

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