Lec14-Malaria

Lec14-Malaria - Malaria Lecture Notes Impact - Impossible...

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Malaria Lecture Notes Impact - Impossible to overestimate the impact of malaria - It’s not hyperbole to suggest that malaria may be the most important killer of humans in history (influenza, smallpox, TB, plague can make a case as well) - remains one of the world’s leading public health problems - over 40% of the world’s population is exposed to malaria - over 100 countries affected - as many as 3 million malaria-related deaths a year globally o most <5, most in Africa - perhaps half a billion! cases (maybe billions of cases) a year (acute illnesses) - huge economic costs (Africa $12 billion/yr – medical, work, productivity, funeral) - some countries 50% of hospital and outpatient costs - human and economic toll staggering! History - Deadly periodic fevers, probably malaria, have been known since the written word - Hippocrates first described the manifestations of the disease - Malaria has brutalized humanity for millennia, but it wasn’t until a little over 100 years ago that the cause and mechanism of transmission was elucidated - Malaria from the Italian “mala aria” (bad or evil air) o association with swamps and the “poisonous” swamp air - Laveran (French army surgeon) first to notice parasites in blood of patient with malaria (1880). Nobel Prize 1907 for this discovery - Ross and Grassi discovered that mosquitoes transmit malaria, Ross awarded the Nobel Prize in 1902 - Malaria likely introduced into the New World by European settlers - Malaria existed in United states from colonial times til 1940’s - One of first expenditures of Continental Congress in 1775 was for $300 to buy quinine to protect Washington’s troops - 1914 an estimated 600,000 cases in the United States
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- Panama Canal was completed because of elimination of yellow fever but also control of malaria - Early 1900s malaria stretched as far north as Canada, Finland, Norway - Aggressive efforts to eradicate malaria in 50s and 60s failed as a result (in part) of plasmodium resistance to chloroquine and anopheles resistance to DDT, Dieldrin Agent - human malaria is caused by 5 species of the protozoan Plasmodium o falciparum o vivax o ovale o malariae o knowlesi (simian malaria, primarily in SEAsia) - humans are the only important reservoirs (except for P. knowlesi) - transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito Lifecycle - gametocytes (male [micro] and female [macro]) in erythrocytes (RBC’s) - mosquito takes a blood meal and ingests gametocytes - microgametocytes exflagellate then fertilizes macrogamete to form a
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Lec14-Malaria - Malaria Lecture Notes Impact - Impossible...

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