9-10 - CHEMICAL REACTIONS When two or more atoms ions or...

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CHEMICAL REACTIONS: When two or more atoms, ions, or molecules collide in such a way that they produce a new substance. * All chemical reactions are governed by the laws of Thermodynamics, 1 st : Energy can neither be created nor destroyed only converted from one form to another. 2 nd : When converting energy from one form to another the amount of useful energy decreases. Types of Chemical Reactions (Spontaneous versus Non-spontaneous) - Spontaneous reaction is one which can occur without outside help. (Exergonic) - Non-spontaneous reaction can occur only with outside help. (Endergonic) Free Energy (G) - Energy "free" and available to do useful work in the cell. - (Figure 8.5) - The amount of energy when/for reactions/processes occur. Free Energy and Chemical Reactions - in all spontaneous reactions: Releases free energy; ∆G- (free energy in the systems decreases) exergonic - in all non-spontaneous reactions: Requires free energy; ∆G+ (increases) endergonic Changes in Free Energy therefore the question of interest to us: is ∆G (+ or -) ??
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