Wk 6 Policy Transfer and Cross-National Learning

Wk 6 Policy Transfer and Cross-National Learning - Policy...

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Policy Transfer and Cross-National Learning Jonathan Zeitlin PA 850 Week 6
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2 A key issue in international governance How and what can/should policy makers in different countries learn from each other? To what extent can/should policies and programs be transferred from one country to another? Or even from one locality/region to another w/in the same country?
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3 A core activity of international organizations Policy advice/transfer, benchmarking, identification of best practices, mutual learning as core activities of IGOs IFIs, UN agencies, OECD Regional trade and security organizations Especially EU and NATO But also private consultants, professional organizations, standardization bodies, NGOs, think tanks, transgovernmental networks
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4 Why now? Growing international interdependence Globalization, trade/investment liberalization Improved info & communication technologies Rising environmental volatility/uncertainty Increasing complexity of policy problems Possible benefits of learning from others who may already be tackling unfamiliar problems & comparing alternative approaches to common challenges Parallels to 1 st age of globalization (pre-WWI) Cf. Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings (US in progressive/New Deal era)
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5 Why transfer? Coercive vs. voluntary Coercive imposition, conditionality, treaty obligations at one extreme Voluntary study missions at the other But conditionality/treaty obligations rarely prescribe a single model of implementation Choice of consultants, national transposition of EU directives (Jacoby on CEE; cf. Sabel & Zeitlin) Can also be strong pressures/incentives for ‘voluntary’ adoption of external norms/stds E.g. human rights, Basel capital adequacy standards
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6 Domestic vs. cross-national learning Domestic learning Trial-and-error learning from policy failure Inward/backward looking Cross-national learning Learning ahead of failure Sideward/forward looking
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7 What is transferred?
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