ger4253 - GE Energy Power Plant Layout Planning Gas Turbine...

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GE Energy Power Plant Layout Planning – Gas Turbine Inlet Air Quality Considerations Colin Wilkes GE Energy Greenville, SC ©2007, General Electric Company. All rights reserved.
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Contents GE Energy | GER-4253 (01/07) i Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Air Quality and Particulates ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1 Particle size ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Composition ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Sources ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Contaminants That Are of Concern to the Gas Turbine .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Gas Phase Contaminants .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Solid Contaminants ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2 Liquid Contaminants .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Exhaust Plumes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2 Corrosive Agents .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Sodium and Potassium Chloride ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Nitrates (Water Soluble or Dry Particulates) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Sulfates ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Methods of Removal ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Solid Particulates ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Liquid Aerosols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Gas Turbine Inlet System Components and Function ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Intake Louvers and Weather Hoods .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 Steam Heaters .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Inlet Filter Compartment ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Inlet Duct ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Gas Turbine Inlet Plenum ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Balance of Plant Equipment Impact on Gas Turbine Intake Air Quality ................................................................................................................................................ 5 Cooling Water Tower Drift ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Air-Cooled Condensers ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Pressure Relief Valves and Flanged Gas Pipe Joints .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Impact of Local Weather Conditions and Emission Sources ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Winter Lake Effects ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Coastal Effects .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Inland Dry Lake Beds ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Inland Salt Water Lakes ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 New Emission Sources .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 ISO Standards for Classification of Corrosive Atmospheres ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Plant Layout Considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Questionnaire ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Distance to the Nearest Coastal Water ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Dry Lake Beds ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Heavily Traveled Highways ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Neighboring Activities ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Meteorological Data ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10
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Contents Air Quality Survey .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Batch Filter Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Continuous Mass Concentration Sampling .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Recommendations .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Satellite Imagery ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Survey of Local Industrial or Agricultural Operations ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 CFD Modeling .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Air Quality Survey ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Site Planning ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Summary ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Appendix ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 A. Checklist ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 B. Seawater Composition .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 C. Site Questionnaire .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 References ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 List of Figures ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 List of Tables .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 GE Energy | GER-4253 (01/07) ii
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Introduction GE heavy-duty gas turbines are able to operate successfully in a wide variety of climates and environments due to inlet air filtration systems that are specifically designed to suit the plant location— while also considering the impact of local air quality variation on the system design. This need for inlet air filtration and the impact of air quality on gas turbine performance and life is discussed in detail in GER-3419A ( Gas Turbine Inlet Air Treatment ). [1] Under normal conditions the inlet system has the capability to process the air by removing contaminants to levels below those that are harmful to the compressor and turbine. Filtration systems, however, are not 100% effective and an increase in the inlet contaminant concentration will generally result in an increase in the contamination level of the air discharging from the filters. In some circumstances, the location of balance of plant (BOP) equipment or neighboring industrial activities may increase the incoming contaminant concentrations to such a degree that additional precautions may be necessary and require optional filtration or moisture removal equipment.
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