2008 2nd Midterm Exam Key - Cellular Neurobiology BIPN 140...

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Cellular Neurobiology / BIPN 140 Name__ ____ KEY _________ SECOND MIDTERM EXAMINATION Fall, 2008 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Please write your name on ALL 6 pages. 2. Please answer each question IN THE SPACE ALLOTTED. 3. For full credit, state your assumptions and show your calculations. 1) __Rod_ _/10 pts 2) __Rod_ _/10 pts 3) __Wei_ _/10 pts 4) __Wei_ _/10 pts 5) __Lydia _/10 pts 6) _Eugene /10 pts 7) __Ryan _/10 pts 8) __Lydia _/15 pts 9) __Ryan _/15 pts TOTAL ________ /100 pts 10) _Eugene EXTRA CREDIT/10 pts TOTAL + EXTRA CREDIT _________ WAIVER : By signing this waiver I give permission for this exam to be left for me to pick up in the vestibule by the elevator on the 3rd floor of Pacific Hall. I understand that I may only pick up my own exam. I realize that the Department of Biology and its staff cannot take responsibility for exams, which may be stolen or lost, from this area. If I choose not to sign this waiver, I acknowledge that my exam will only be available for pickup 1:30-2:30 p.m., Monday- Friday from 3140 Pacific Hall. ____________________________________ ______________________________ 1. (10 points) Give two examples of each of the following (abbreviations are okay): 1
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Cellular Neurobiology / BIPN 140 Name__ ____ KEY _________ a) Classical excitatory neurotransmitters – ACh, glutamate (also aspartate) b) Classical inhibitory neurotransmitters – GABA, glycine c) Retrograde transmitters – endocannabinoids, NO (arachidonic acid; others) d) Neuropeptide transmitters and/or modulators – leu-enkephalin, met-enkepalin, endorphins, lipotropins, ACTH, many others (e.g. Substance P, BDNF, ...) d) Second messengers – calcium, cAMP, cGMP, DAG, IP 3 , others 2. (10 points) What does each of the following proteins do and what kinds of cells express them? a) Choline acetyltransferase – synthesizes ACh from acetyl-CO-A and choline; found in (and defines) cholinergic neurons. b) Tyrosine hydroxylase – synthesizes catecholamines from tyrosine (catalyzes first step: tyr to L-DOPA); found in adrenergic neurons (and endocrine cells). c) Vesicular glutamate transporter – transports glutamate across cell membranes (& into SVs); found in glutamatergic neurons. d) Glutamic acid decarboxylase – synthesizes GABA from glutamate; found in inhibitory (GABAergic) interneurons. e) High affinity choline transporter – avidly accumulates choline into neurons from extracellular space; found in cholinergic neurons. 3. (10 points) How are synaptic vesicles released? What provides the trigger? What presynaptic proteins bring it about? How are they thought to work? (Cartoon, if you like.) SVs are exocytosed by fusing with the terminal plasma membrane and extruding their contents. This is triggered by calcium entry into the synaptic terminal. Depolarization of the terminal, e.g. by an AP arriving there, opens voltage-gated calcium channels; calcium enters and interacts with synaptotagmin to permit the release. Exocytosis occurs by conformational changes that ensue in the complexes formed between the v-SNARE synaptobrevin (aka
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