BIPN 140 Lecture Slides Info 1-6

BIPN 140 Lecture Slides Info 1-6 - B IPN 140 Lecture 1...

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BIPN 140 Lecture 1 Slides Information Axoplasmic transport = movement of materials inside the axon, both away from and toward the cell body Rates: slow/ 1mm/day orthograde (anterograde) only Fast/ 400mm/day orthograde Intermediate/ 250-300mm/day retrograde Detection: Direct visualization Arterial cuff/ligature Radioactive tracers Mechanism: slow requires cell body, involves bulk flow Fast and intermediate require microtubules Kinesin=motor molecule-orthograde transport Dynein=motor molecule-retrograde transport Rapid/Slow Functions of Glia Cells Rapid Myelin making (oligodendrocytes or schwann cells) K+ buffering (astrocytes) Excitability (glia do make A.P. do release NT) Transmitter Uptake Slow Blood brain barrier (toxins kept out) by astrocytes Generation of Neurons (astrocytes) Regulate formation of neuronal connections Promote regeneration or discourage regeneration (astrocytes) CSF (ependymal cells) Removal, debris, savenging (microglia) Colchicine breaks down microtubules PAPER: Activity-Dependent Transfer of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor to Postsynaptic Neurons What are neurotrophins? Proteins synthesized by neurons that act on other neurons stimulating growth, differentiation and survival. E.g. BDNF (Brain derived Neurotrophic Factor)
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Authors find out? BDNF is transferred from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons; this process depends on electrical activity (action potentials) Nuclear injection of DNA encoding BDNF-GFP, mouse cortical neuron in vitro shows nice visualization Movement of BDNF in the axon of a living neuron (velocity 0.3 micrometers/sec = 25mm/day) Activity-dependent transfer of BDNF in presence of TTX (tetrodotoxin) Conclusion: BDNF is transferred from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons; this process depends on electrical activity (Action potentials) Lecture 2 slides info Na+/K+ pump Ouabain binding site on outside membrane 2K+ pumped in for every 3Na+ pumped out Use ATP ADP + Pi to pump PAPER: Resting Microglial Cells Are Highly Dynamic Surveillants of Brain Parenchyma in Vivo Microglial cells represent the immune system of the mammalian brain and therefore are critically involved in various injuries and diseases. Little is known about their role in the healthy brain and their immediate reaction to brain damage. By using in vivo two-photon imaging in neocortex, we found that microglial cells are highly active in their presumed resting state, continually surveying the microenvironment with extremely motile processes and protrusions. Furthermore, blood-brain barrier disruption provoke immediate and focal activation of microglia, switching their behavior from patrolling to shielding of the injured site. Microglia thus are busy and vigilant housekeepers in the adult brain. How do microglia behaving in the resting brain and following injury?
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BIPN 140 Lecture Slides Info 1-6 - B IPN 140 Lecture 1...

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