Psychological Resesarchoutline 9-6

Psychological Resesarchoutline 9-6 - Psychological Research...

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Psychological Research
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What do you believe? Theory: A systematic way of organizing and understanding observations Hypothesis: A proposed relationship between two variables
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Variable: anything which can be measured or described along a particular dimension Continuous Variable: a variable which can be measured across a continuum Ex: weight, you can measure your weight along a continuum from a schedule you made for a diet. Categorical Variable: a variable with a fixed meaning or attribute Ex: Marital status, married, never married, divorced Ex: Diabetic, yes or no can’t be measured on continuum
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Operationalize Definitions: Label and describe the variables of interest What is aggression? How is it measured?
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Research Methods in Five Easy Steps Develop a theory based on observations Develop a hypothesis from the theory Design a research study Gather the data Analyze the data and report findings
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Measurement Issues in Research Validity: does it measure what it is supposed to measure Reliability: do you get consistent results over time Ex: I think fall semester students are generally students have a healthier appetite than winter semester. Set up research study and there is a candy bar at everyone’s desk and see who has eaten the candy. Do it during both semesters. More people ate the candy in the fall than winter….Doesn’t make a valid measure of the test. Somebody could have eaten right before, allergic of candy given, don’t want to gain weight, etc. Need to have consistent results to be reliable, goop reliability but may not be good validity.
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Data Collection Techniques Direct Observation Ex: Feeding observation Questionnaires Ex: Yes/No questions Interviews Ex: Asking a child what an object is, what is inside, what you think is inside, and what actually is inside…M&Ms in a crayon box Psychological Tests Ex: Depression scale
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