Language+and+Thoughoutline 10-14

Language+and+Thoughoutline 10-14 - Language and Thought...

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Language and Thought
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Language: system of symbols, sounds meanings and rules of combination that allow for communication among humans Benjamin Whorf: Linguistic relativity one’s language determines one’s thoughts
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Structure of Language Phonemes: smallest units of sound which can be distinguished; change in sound can alter the meaning “c” at or “b” at. Initial phonemes b “t” t or b “a” t Middle phonemes -Morphemes: smallest units of meaning in language; phrases made up of morphemes
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Semantics: the study of the meaning of words/combinations/sentences Syntax: the structure of a language, underlying rules of order/function Gleason Study: language rules are generative Ex: wug, if there are 2 wugs Overregularizations: grammatical rules incorrectly generalized to “exception” cases
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Language Acquisition Device: (Chomsky) Humans possess an inborn language mechanism Hard-wired to sort input from 20-80 phonemes Lose between 4-12 months
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Surface structure: particular words used Deep structure: notion of nouns, verbs, commands Chomsky believes languages differ only in surface structure
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Expressive Language: the ability to produce language Receptive Language: the ability to comprehend, process and integrate the meaning of language Children usually have a greater capacity for receptive speech (want a cookie? Nod head)
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Stages in Language Development Crying Cooing: vowel like noises Babbling: consonant/vowel ba ba; da da First Words Holophrases: simple word conveys meaning Overextensions
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