RodgersMaking POLICY - The Dynamics The of Public Policy...

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Unformatted text preview: The Dynamics The of Public Policy of 1 Stages Stages of public policy – – – – – – – problem definition problem agenda setting policy formulation policy legitimation policy implementation policy change policy evaluation 2 Policy Process Model Policy Cycle Problem definition/ Agenda setting Policy evaluation feedback Policy formulation Policy change Policy legitimation Policy implementation 3 Stage One: Identifying Problems Stage There are always a lot of problems with There alternative problem definitions alternative Relatively few receive attention 4 Why Do Some Problems Receive Why Attention? Attention? Problems, Politics, Participants Problems-- that become an agenda item Problems-– Issues that government officials and/or the Issues public focus on (fuel economy, clean air) public – Issues mandated by law and/or commonly Issues monitored (child vaccinations) monitored – Focusing events (e.g., 9/11) 5 Politics and Participants Politics – Problem becomes focus of attention because of Problem a change in administration change Participants: Important people or groups Participants: are interested in the problem are – – – – – president and staff congressional leadership media interest groups judiciary 6 Agenda Setting Problem stream Policy stream Opportunity for agenda items Political stream 7 Policy Formulation begins with Policy Problem Definition Problem Can the problem or problems be Can defined? defined? – What is the major problem or problems that What need to be solved? Is there agreement on the basic Is problem or problems? 8 Stage Two: Policy Formulation Define policy alternatives that can be Define debated. debated. Who’s involved? Very fragmented in Who’s American system. – – – – – Members of Congress Executive/Bureaucracy Government Staffs Government Interest groups Judiciary 9 How are Policy Options or Solutions Identified? Solutions Technical Feasibility/costs Consistency with community values Anticipation of future problems or Anticipation constraints constraints 10 Example: Welfare Reform Example: Problems Identified and Debated Problems Increases in the number of people on Increases welfare welfare Increases in welfare costs Increases in the number of children born Increases out-of-wedlock out-of-wedlock Increases in parental abandonment 11 Democratic Party Plan Democratic Require work of able adults and make sure Require work pays a decent wage work Improve child support enforcement Set up programs to prevent unwanted Set pregnancies (sex education) pregnancies Support work for adults with child care and Support health care services health Create public service and subsidized jobs 13 Republican Plan Republican Cap welfare spending Turn welfare over to the states Set limits on how long healthy adults can Set receive welfare receive Allow states to use strong sanctions to force Allow change in habits change Deny assistance to teens who become Deny pregnant pregnant Eliminate aid to immigrants 14 Compromise: New Legislation Passed in 1996 Passed Caps welfare spending Turns welfare over to states, but sets Turns guidelines guidelines Requires supported work of healthy adults Requires both parents to accept Requires responsibility for children responsibility Funds sex education for teens Denies welfare to most immigrants 15 Stage Three: Policy Legitimation Policy has a better chance of being Policy implemented as intended if it is considered to be legitimate to It is legitimate if: Citizens agree that government action is Citizens required and appropriate required 16 Stage Four: Policy Implementation Activities that put policies into effect – – – – Passing the required laws Formulating regulations Formulating Allocating the appropriate budget Assigning enforcement or implementation Assigning authority authority 17 Instruments of Policy Regulations and laws Government management of a policy Government Taxing and spending Market mechanisms Education and information 18 Informal Rulemaking Also called “notice-and-comment” Requires three major steps Requires three – Notice of intended rulemaking in the Federal Notice Register Register – Opportunity for interested parties to submit Opportunity comments comments – Consideration of comments and response to the Consideration comments in the final rule. comments 19 Implementation Often Involves Implementation Delegation Delegation To carry out the policy agencies may To delegate power to other government entities or even private subcontractors. 20 Delegation of Authority Occurs Delegation when: when: Government confers upon an administrative or Government private subcontractors rulemaking power that it could exercise itself. 21 Limits on Discretion Administrative Procedures passed into law Administrative limit the authority of implementing agencies agencies Congress and the executive branch Congress establish oversight procedures and requirements requirements 22 Presidential Oversight of Policy Presidential Implementation Includes Implementation Appointment Power Budgetary Power Reorganizations Guidelines for Enforcement Executive Orders Required evaluations 23 Congressional Oversight of Congressional Implementation Includes Implementation Committee Hearings Budgetary Power Investigations (General Accounting Office) Informal (phone calls, letters, etc.) Enactment of a statute Deadlines 24 Stage Five: Evaluation of Change Different types of changes Different – direct vs. indirect – short-term vs. long-term Evaluation puts information back into the Evaluation policy process policy 25 Developing Evaluation Criteria: Developing Some Examples Effectiveness, efficiency, fairness, political Effectiveness, feasibility feasibility Decide which criteria fit the problem(s) 26 Evaluation may include Evaluation Measurement of Change Listing of positive changes Listing of changes that still need to be Listing accomplished accomplished Cost-Benefit Analysis: How much has Cost-Benefit change cost? 27 Stage Six: Feedback Stage Information and Data on impact of law or Information regulation is communicated to government officials and public. Feedback plays a role in shaping Feedback amendments to exiting laws and new laws. amendments This is the learning stage. This 28 Policy Process Model Policy Cycle Problem definition/ Agenda setting Policy evaluation feedback Policy formulation Policy change Policy legitimation Policy implementation 29 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2010 for the course POLS AND I 3351, 3352 taught by Professor Carlton,tedin,le,o'brien during the Spring '09 term at University of Houston.

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