scan0001 - Americans spend more than $250 billion per year...

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Unformatted text preview: Americans spend more than $250 billion per year on prescription and over—the—counter (OTC) medicines, about one—half of the world’s total. Our medicine cabinets are fairly well stocked. If you and your family are typical consumers, you may have headache pills, muscle relaxers, antacids, cough syrup, and a couple of old bottles of antibiotics. A quick check of the active ingredients reveals that these bottles contain such compounds as ibuprofen, magnesium salicylate, sodium bicarbonate, and pseudoephedrin. One of the more common ingredients in a pain—relieving OTC medicine is aspirin (a molecular compound). Sodium bicarbon— ate (anionic compound) is typically used as an antacid. These two compounds work in different ways to relieve common maladies, and they are fundamentally different in their chemical makeup. They do not have the same numbers and types of atoms, although this alone isn’t enough to explain why these compounds differ radically in many properties, including melting point, boiling point, solubility in water, and chemical reactivity. The main difference lies in their designation as mole— cular compounds or ionic compounds, and this designation is made on the basis of the way in which the atoms are bound together. Biochemists, medicinal chemists, and pharmacognocists (who study the properties of drugs, especially focusing on those from natural sources) are familiar with molec- ular and ionic compounds. One of the fundamental questions asked by these scien- tists is How do the bonds within a compound, the shape of the compound, and the physical properties of the compound contribute to its ability to treat a disease or common malady? In this chapter, we will answer this question and others as we explore how atoms are held together, and how this bonding determines the shapes and properties of compounds. 1,... Modeling Bonds W‘— We will begin our discussion by looking at the ways in which researchers View the compounds with which they work. Although the formula of a po- tential drug can be useful for determining the number and types of atoms it contains, it doesn’t say much about the molecular shape. Aspirin—acetylsal— icylic acid—Which we discussed in Chapter 3, has the formula C9HgO4. The formula alone provides no information about how aspirin structurally inter- acts with the body to alleviate a headache. To find out more, we must look deeper into the atom—into the role that the electron plays in determining shapes. Our first key idea is that the different arrangements of the electrons in a compound help determine the shape and the properties of that compound. Three Kinds of Bonds Acetylsahcyhc acid C9H804 In their search for marketable pharmaceuticals, biochemists, medicinal chemists, and pharmacognocists use a wide range of molecular models, three- dimensional depictions of the structure of molecules, as tools to examine the shape and properties of compounds. To be ideal for the marketplace, a com— pound should I effectively treat a particular disease, malady, or ailment I have no serious side effects I be inexpensive to mass—produce 303 ...
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