scan0004 - 306 Chapter8 Bonding Basics valence or core...

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Unformatted text preview: 306 Chapter8 Bonding Basics valence or core electrons on an atom a molecule such as aspirin. Knowing those electrons behave is of ut— nsional model of a molecule. As the atom is also important to The position of the electrons as either where the electrons on most importance in dev we’ll see shortly, the number building our best possible model. eloping our three-dime of valence electrons on Octet Rule In any chemical reaction, reach a stable electron con has its most energetically stable ar most stable electron configuration 0 one of the driving forces is the ability of each atom to figuration. Electrons shuffle around until each atom rangement of electrons. As in F‘ and Na+, the f the main—group elements is isoelectronic with a noble gas. We refer to this as the octet rule because the stable arrangement for all of the noble gases beyond helium has eight valence electrons. For the ele- ments H and He and the ions Li+ and Be”, the rule is also known as the duet rule because of the need for only two electrons to fill the valence shell of the first row elements. In other words, main— group atoms typically react by changing their num- y as to acquire the more stable electron configuration of ber of electrons in such a wa a noble gas. A full valence shell around an atom is a good situation for an atom, on configuration as a noble gas. We’ll use this because it then has the same electr rule a lot as we put together atoms to make ionic compounds and molecules. EXERCISE 8.1 Writing Lewis Dot Symbols and the Lewis dot symbol, for both P3‘ and Al”. Write the electron configuration, With which element are they isoelectronic? Solution The P3’ anion has three electrons mor electron configuration is 1522522p63523p argon. The Lewis dot symbol shows an octet The Al3+ cation is missing three electrons, e than the phosphorus atom. Therefore, the 6. This is the same electron configuration as of electrons. compared to the neutral atom. Its electron configuration is 1522522p6, which is isoelectronic with neon. The Lewis dot symbol also illustrates an octet of electrons. i’RACTICE 8.1 write the Lewis dot symbol, and determine which Write the electron configuration, F‘, Mg“, and Br‘. atoms are isoelectronic with 82', See Problems 1-4 and 9—14. 32,...» ionic Bonding >17 chloride is an ionic compound. In ancient times, it used in cooking and pickling. According to (USGS), 210 million metric tons of sodium chloride were harvested from salt water or mined from deposits in the ground in (1 States, most of the salt that is harvested is (1 sodium hydroxide. About 37% of the total the 2;: Application We noted before that sodium was a highly sought—after seasoning CHEMiCAL _ . the United States Geological Survey 3 ENCOUNTERS'. The Uses and ' BehaVior Of 2005 (see Figure 8.2). In the Unite i SOdlum Chloride used to manufacture chlorine gas an is used to de—ice highways. Only 3% is used in the food industry. Even so, average American consumes more than 1.5 kg of salt each year! The human body requires only about 500 mg of sodium per day, yet the aver— evel of age American ingests between 2300 and 6900 mg each day. This high 1 ...
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