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Unformatted text preview: (PLANE42, SOLID45) than it is for quadratic elements (PLANE2, PLANE82, SOLID92, SOLID95). The degradation in performance for linear elements is most pronounced for bending loads coupled with irregular element shapes. The linear elements experience a locking phenomena due to their inability to properly account for shear energy in bending resulting in excessive stiffness in the element. The inclusion of extra shape functions in the element formulation helps in correcting the shear energy prediction, but this is only applicable to rectangular element shapes. Hence results for PLANE42 and SOLID45 in rectangular form show very acceptable results. 4. Distorted linear elements show more pronounced locking (excessive stiffness) for trapezoidal element shapes than for parallelogram shapes. Results clearly show underpredicted displacements for trapezoidal element shapes for PLANE42 and SOLID45. 2–34 ANSYS Verification Manual . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . © SAS IP, Inc. Benchmark D1 5. The quadratic elements show very good performance under all loadings and geometries. The good perform...
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