PractiseQuestions_Test1 - LIGHT & LIFE 1....

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Unformatted text preview: LIGHT & LIFE 1. Briefly describe how the evolution of the eye could occur through natural selection. 2. Light serves two important functions for life on Earth: it is a source of ________ that sustain(s) life and it provides organisms with information about the ________ world. a. chemicals; surrounding b. energy; physical c. energy; chemical d. chemicals; physical 3. Chlorophyll is green because a. it can absorb green light. b. it can absorb portions of blue light. c. it can absorb some red light. d. it cannot absorb green light. 4. What is the importance of the pigment melanin in humans? a. It prevents destruction of vitamin D. b. It prevents the DNA damage caused by UV light. c. It allows formation of vitamin B. d. It reflects UV light. 5. What is the purpose of photoreceptors in naked mole rats? a. They allow the naked mole rats to see light. b. They allow the biological clock of the naked mole rats’ to be set. c. They do not have any purpose. d. They allow the naked mole rats to see in the dark. 5. How can light be damaging to organisms? 6. What is circadian rhythm and how does it affect certain organisms? SPECIES 7. Abiotic factors include a. all of these. b. wind speed. c. sunlight. d. temperature. 8. The intensity of incoming solar radiation varies from the equator to the poles because of a. Earth’s spherical shape. b. Earth’s fixed tilt. c. seasonal variations in day length. d. seasonal variations in temperature. 9. Phototrophs obtain energy from a. soil. b. light. c. air. d. oxidation of inorganic or organic substances PHYLOGENY 10. True / False The principle of parsimony is a good rationale in constructing phylogenetic trees because similarity due to common ancestry should be more common than similarity due to convergent evolution. 11. Which of the following have biologists used in an attempt to understand the phylogenetic relationships among organisms? A. Examine the fossil record B. Compared morphological features C. Examined similarities and differences in DNA sequences of homologous genes. D. All of the above (A ­C) 12. Applying the principle of parsimony to the trait "ability to fly," which of the two phylogenetic trees above is better? A. Tree 1 B. Tree 2 C. Both trees are equally parsimonious. 13. How does the concept of descent with modification explain both the unity & diversity of life? HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THINKING 14. All biological research is undertaken with the explicit or implicit recognition that a. all forms of life are related and have evolved from ancestral forms. b. all species share the same common ancestor. c. the products of evolution are easily predicted. d. Charles Darwin’s view of evolution put forth in The Origin is without error. 15. According to the principle of use and disuse, the form of body parts in offspring a. is the result of natural selection. b. is the result of how much the offspring uses a particular body part. c. is inherited based on phenotypic changes that occur in parents during their lifetime d. is immutable. 16. Lamarck’s theory of evolution proposed which of the following? a. New characteristics are passed from one generation to the next. b. All of these. c. Species change through time. d. Organisms change in response to their environment. 17A view of Earth’s history that attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes is a. homology. b. gradualism. c. punctuated equilibrium. d. descent with modification. 18. How did ideas of gradualism and uniformitarianism influence Darwin’s thinking about evolution? EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION 19. Darwin’s inference that individuals within a population compete for limited resources was based on which observation(s)? a. Most organisms produce more than one or two offspring. b. Populations do not increase in size indefinitely. c. Food and other resources are limited for most populations. d. All of these. 20. Three of the four choices below indicate that evolution by natural selection is a plausible mechanism leading to the diversity of species that have and do exist. Select the exception. a. artificial selection b. a parent’s traits developed through life are passed on to offspring via natural selection c. biogeographical patterns in species d. Darwin’s finches 21. In undisturbed strata of sedimentary rock A. The oldest rocks lay on top. B. The oldest rocks lay on the bottom. C. The oldest rocks are in the middle. D. The oldest rocks are distributed between younger rock layers. E. None of the above. (A ­D) 21. An example of evolutionary divergence is best characterized by Darwin’s observation of a. the great variety of form of species. b. fossils along the coast of Argentina. c. differences in shell shape between species of tortoise. d. body armour similarities between armadillos and fossilized glyptodonts. 22. Which of the following observations helped Darwin shape his concept of descent with modification? a. Species diversity declines farther from the equator. b. Fewer species live on islands than on nearest continents. c. Birds can be found on islands located farther from the mainland than the birds’ maximum nonstop flight distance. d. South American temperate plants are more similar to tropical plants of South America than to the temperate plants of Europe. e. Earthquakes reshape life by causing mass extinctions. 23. The upper forelimbs of humans & bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, whereas the corresponding bones in whales have very different shapes and proportion. However, genetic data suggest that all three kinds of organisms diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for these data? a. Humans & bats evolved by natural selection, and whales evolved by Lamarckian mechanisms. b. Forelimb evolution was adaptive in people and bats, but not in whales. c. Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy. d. Genes mutate faster in whales than in humans or bats. e. Whales are not properly classified as mammals. VARIATION 24. You measure the variation in toe length of all the students in your class and arrive at numbers that reflect a wide range of variation, with some short toes, some long and just about every length in between those two extremes. Your conclusion is that toe length is subject to a. qualitative variation. b. quantitative variation. c. allele polymorphism. d. microevolution. 25. Mendel observed the colour of his pea plant flowers and observed that they were either purple or white, with no intermediate states. In modern evolutionary terms, we would refer to this sort of diversity as a. quantitative variation. b. qualitative variation. c. genotypic polymorphism. d. diversity. 26. The appropriate unit for defining and measuring genetic variation is the A. Cell B. Individual C. Population D. Ecosystem 27. Why are mutations important in evolution, when most mutations are harmful? HARDY ­WEINBERG 28. The Hardy–Weinberg formula is valuable for the calculation of changes in a. population size. b. speciation. c. allele frequencies. d. mutation. e. dimorphism. 29. Microevolution can be said to have taken place when a. a population experiences a shift in allele frequencies. b. a mutation occurs in a population. c. several mutations occur in a population. d. a feature of an individual animal changes through use or disuse. e. a population has different forms of the same gene. 30. The Hardy–Weinberg principle of genetic equilibrium tells us what to expect when a sexually reproducing population is a. decreasing with each generation. b. increasing with each generation. c. migrating. d. evolving. e. not evolving NATURAL SELECTION 31. The key factors behind selection are a. selective force, genetic ­based trait, and capacity for population growth. b. selective force, and capacity for population growth. c. genetic ­based trait, and capacity for population growth. d. selective force, and genetic ­based trait. 32. What were the key elements in the evolution of whales, when hoofed mammal changed to whale? a. genetic variation, and survival of individuals that used the water to avoid predation b. genetic variation, survival of individuals that used water to avoid predation, and selection of strains of individuals that switched their diets to fish c. genetic variation, and selection of strains of individuals that switched their diets to fish d. genetic variation 33. A group of interbreeding individuals in a specific geographical location is called a a. gene pool. b. species. c. population. d. community. e. ecosystem 34. Which of the following evolution ­related events is in the correct cause ­and ­effect sequence? a. mutation → variation → natural selection → adaptation → speciation b. variation → adaptation → mutation → natural selection → speciation c. speciation → adaptation → variation → mutation → natural selection d. mutation → speciation → adaptation → variation → natural selection e. natural selection → variation → mutation → adaptation → speciation 35. Any product of natural selection that increases the relative fitness of an organism in its environment is called a. mutation. b. an adaptive trait. c. adaptation. d. speciation. e. variation. 36. Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which natural selection is based? A. There is heritable variation among individuals. B. Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring C. Species produce more offspring than the environment can supports. D. Individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environmentgenerally leave more offspring than those whose characteristics are less suited. E. Only a fraction of the offspring produced by an individual may survive. 37. One way to describe adaptive radiation is a. development of similar body form in unrelated organisms. b. origin of many species from a single common ancestor. c. spread of successful alleles from one population to another. d. formation of beneficial alleles through exposure to radiation. 38. How are evolution and natural selection related? 39. Why would faster rabbits tend to have more offspring than slower rabbits? What effect would this have on the next (and future) generation(s) of rabbits? ...
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