November 9 - Biology 442 Developmental Biology Lecture 6...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Biology 442 Developmental Biology Lecture 6 Neurulation and Neural Crest
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Lecture outline I. Neurulation Mechanisms of primary neurulation: -Formation and shaping of the neural plate/ Bending of the neural plate/ Closure of the neural groove - Forces that drive primary neurulation Mechanisms of secondary neurulation Folic acid and neural birth defetcs II. Neural crest Neural crest specification Neural crest migration
Image of page 2
Learning goals for this class Name and describe the key events that shape the neural tube during primary neurulation Compare and contrast mechanisms of primary and secondary neurulation Describe how neural crest emigrates from the neural tube during neurulation Name neural crest derivatives Explain what mechanisms are in place to regulate neural crest migration in specific pathways
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Organogenesis Case study: the brain Induction Patterning Morphogenesi s (Neurulation) Wiring Growth
Image of page 4
The neural tube is shaped during primary and secondary neurulation Primary Secondary (Head and trunk) (Caudal region) Epithelium Bending Closure Mesenchyme Condensation Cavitation Lowery and Sive (2004). Mech Dev. 121(10):1189-97
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Failure to undergo proper neurulation results in neural tube birth defects m On the most frequent neural tube birth defects is spina bifida (1 to 2 out of 1000 newborns) Spina bifida develops during the first month after conception: - Failure of neural tube closure in the posterior region of the spinal cord - Bone and muscle cannot grow around the incompletely developed area and the cord. Meninges (membranes that cover the cord) may herniate through the resulting gap. - Spinal nerve damage can occur as a result of Spina bifida. As a consequence, paralysis of the lower extremities can occur. In addition, patients exhibit bladder and bowel problems.
Image of page 6
Stages of primary neurulation (chick embryo) Stages: 1. Formation and shaping of the neural plate 2. Bending of the neural plate 3. Closure of the neural groove Neural ectoderm or neural plate Non neural ectoderm Neural fold Neural groove Lateral neural hinge Medial neural hinge Epidermis (skin) Neural tube (CNS) Neural crest
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Embryonic Axes M L L D V A P Anterior-posterior (A-P): head to tail Medio-lateral (M-L) becomes dorso-ventral (D-V) once neurulation is complete Narrowing of the M-L axis results in lengthening along the A-P axis
Image of page 8
Formation and shaping of the neural plate Formation of the neural plate : apicobasal thickening of the neural plate (red arrow) relative to the non neural ectoderm.
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern