DB-Lec 12 - 5 questions central to morphogenesis that one...

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5 questions central to morphogenesis that one should think about as we look at gastrulation and organogenesis.
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Gastrulation starts with the formation of the blastopore, an indentation or grove through which cells move inside to form the mesoderm and endoderm.
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We will look at gastrulation in 5 model organisms: 1. A protostome – sea urchin 2. Deuterostomes – amphibians 3. Zebra fish 4. Chickens 5. Mammals
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Blastula is a single layered epithelia of ~1000 cells surrounding a fluid filled blastocoel cavity. Epitheal to mesenchyme transition
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Invagination starts with the vegetal plate cells becoming bottle shaped. Archentron = primative gut, opening is the blastopore that becomes the mouth. The hyaline layer buckles because of changes in the composition of one of the 2 lamina that make up the hyaline layer.
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CSPG is hygroscopic (water absorbing) and swells the inner lamina but not the outer. This causes the vegetal region of the hyaline layer to buckle and start the invagination of the archentron
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2 forces drive continued extension of the archenteron into the interior of the blastocoel. Secondary mesenchyme cells form at the tip of the archenteron and extend filopodia which attach to the inner surface of the blastocoel wall and pull the archenteron further into the blastocoel.
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