and Masters’ theses.
Three types of works are excluded. First, based
on conventional deﬁnitions of social movements, this article does not
explore participation in establishment politics, including the electoral
Second, it is beyond the scope of this essay to include the rich and
varied novels, poetry, ﬁlms, music, and other cultural productions created
within and, in turn, generative of the AAM. Third, as is common with
historiographies, this article does not analyze primary-source materials,
including the many vibrant AAM newspapers.
Five areas of struggle were critical to the 1960s–1970s AAM. First,
Asian Americans of diverse ages helped to transform the Antiwar Move-
ment from its emphasis on saving American lives to exposing racism,
sexism, and capitalism at home and abroad. Activists linked the U.S. war
in Vietnam to critiques of U.S. imperialism and militarism in Cambodia,
Hiroshima, Okinawa, the Philippines, Hawaii, and elsewhere. Second,
given the predominance of youth in the AAM, it is not surprising that