Lecture1 - 2 LECTURE1:INTRODUCTION EECS170A 1...

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9/28/2010 1 LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION EECS 170A 9/28/2010 1 This class focuses on basic properties of semiconductors and describes how we can manipulate these properties by using electric field (Voltage) for predefined purposes. If you understand how material behave microscopically you can deduce how it will 9/28/2010 2 operate if complex field pattern (voltage waveform) is applied across a complex semiconductor device. Hence, before we start to focus on devices we should discuss what semiconductor is, what are the made of and their basic properties. We are quite familiar with terms such as conductors and insulators Conductors are materials with very low resistivity (abundant free electrons) and conduct electric current easily from one point to another point. EX: Metals I l t t i l ith hi h i ti it d 9/28/2010 3 Insulators are materials with very high resistivity and have low concentrations of free electrons to conduct current;. Semiconductors are materials in which conductivity (also resistivity) can be manipulated by external forces such as electric field, radiation and temperature Organic Semiconductors Inorganic Semiconductors What are these materials They can be divided into two categories 9/28/2010 4 Semiconductors Our interest area Materials including C H compounds polymers derived from polyacetylene, such as polyacetylene itself, polypyrrole, and polyaniline. Elemental Semiconductors: Si, Ge Compound Semiconductors: Made of 2 or more elements Alloys: Mixture of 2 or more elements
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9/28/2010 2 9/28/2010 5 Inorganic semiconductors are usually found Group II to Group VI columns of the periodic table They can be elemental, compound and alloy of multiple elements Elemental: Si, Ge Compound: IV IV: SiC III V: AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, InSb II VI: ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, HgS IV VI: PbS, PbSe, PbTe 9/28/2010 6 Alloys: mixture of elemental semiconductors and or compound semiconductors Binary (2 element): Si x Ge 1 x Ternary (3 elements): AlAs+GaAs Al x Ga 1 x As, (similarly: Al x In 1 x As, GaAs x P 1 x , etc Quaternary (4 elements): Al x Ga 1 x As y Sb 1 y We will pay special attention to Si, Ge, and GaAs Applications * : Ge: Microwave diodes , Substrate for growing GaAs and AlGaAs Si: Diodes, transistors, integrated circuits (diodes+transistors+resistors+capacitors), ICs Digital, analog, A D, D A, mixed mode, Computers, automobiles, communications & consumer electronics, Solar cells watch, calculator, car, satellite, etc., Photodiodes for wavelength 0.4 to 1.0 m optical receivers and detectors, Photodiode array with CCD (charge coupled device) CCD camera, Photodiode array with CMOS circuit – CMOS Imager ,
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