06Lecture-G-Code-Intro - ENGR3190U Manufacturing and...

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ENGR3190U: Manufacturing and Production Processes Lecture 06 Introduction to CNC and G-codes 1. Introduction CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control . It is a versatile system that allows you to control the motion of tools and parts through computer programs that use numeric data. CNC can be used with nearly any traditional machine. The CNC Mills and Lathes are the most common machines found in the machine shop. We will cover G-code programming for milling machines in this course. The programming language that CNC machines uses are called “ G-Code ”, which is a series of instructions/code (that starts with a G) telling the machine to perform various operations such as: Perform a rapid move Cut a straight line or an arc Drill holes Set tool information such as tool height or work part offset. Other codes are also used in G-code programming: X,Y,Z - tool position M code - machine related codes F - feed rate S - spindle speed N - line number R – Radius – for cutting arcs T - Tool selection I - Arc data X-axis – for cutting arcs J - Arc data Y-axis – for cutting arcs There following are a list of some of the CNC machines that uses G-Codes. (1) CNC Lathe (used in this lab) (2) CNC Mill (used in this lab) (3) CNC Router (4) CNC Punch Press (5) CNC Brake Press (6) CNC Laser 2. Axis Designation & Plane Selection The X,Y, Z axis for a vertical milling machine is shown below. Table – X-axis Saddle – Y-axis Head – Z-axis 1
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Vertical milling machine Example Some machines have 2 heads so additional axis are possible.
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