CHE
Activating Deactivating groups

Activating Deactivating groups - Substituent Effects on the...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

Substituent Effects on the Reactivity and Orientation of Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Substituent groups already on the benzene ring greatly influence both the reactivity of electrophilic attack, and the site ( ortho , meta , or para ) of attachment of the incoming electrophile. Classification of Substituents Substituents are classified as activating or deactivating relative to the reactivity of benzene. Substituents also are classified as ortho/para directing ( o/p directing) or meta directing ( m directing). There is a fundamental theoretical connection between the reactivity influence and site direction of a substituent group.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 2
Inductive Electron Withdrawal Electron Donation by Hyperconjugation
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.