Deductive Reasoning - Nov 10

Deductive Reasoning - Nov 10 - Deductive Reasoning 1 The...

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Deductive Reasoning 1. The nature of deductive reasoning. Deductive arguments are those whose premises, if true guarantee the truth of the conclusion. In other words, the conclusion of a deductive argument is true by definition/ necessarily true. -The logical strength of deductive arguments does not depend upon the content of the premises but upon the structure/form of the argument. 2. Truth functional statements and logical operators. Truth-functional statements include logical operators. There are five logical operators: negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication, and equivalence. -Negation: not p, Ex: Dogs do not like cats. -Conjunction: p and q, Ex: I am a sick man and I am a spiteful man. -Disjunction: p or q, Ex: Either Picasso was this century’s greatest artist or Klimt was. -Implication: if p the q, Ex: If I am a sick man, then I am a spiteful man. -Equivalence: p equals p; q equals q, Ex: I am myself. 3. Symbolization -Negation: ~ -Conjunction: & -Disjunction: V -Implication: => -Equivalence: ≡
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