CT, Reasoning and Critical Thinking-Part 1-Chpt. 1 & Additional Concepts-September, 2010

CT, Reasoning and Critical Thinking-Part 1-Chpt. 1 & Additional Concepts-September, 2010

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September, 2010 1 Reasoning and Critical Thinking Part One Readings: CT , Chpt. 1 & Additional Concepts
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September, 2010 2 Note The last topic on the Additional Concepts sheet, “Counterexamples to Deductive Arguments” is something we will get to later in the term
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September, 2010 3 The Basic Concepts of Critical Thinking The Philosopher’s Toolbox
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September, 2010 4 The Basic Concepts of Critical Thinking and their Logical Properties Concepts Statements Sets Arguments Properties True or false Consistent or inconsistent Logically strong or logically weak. Sound or unsound.
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September, 2010 5 Statements
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September, 2010 6 Statements The most basic concept of critical thinking is that of the statement. Definition: A statement is a sentence used to make a claim. Statements are capable of being either true or false. Logic also calls them assertions or propositions .
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September, 2010 7 Statements This property of being either true or false distinguishes statements from sentences which are not capable of being either true or false: commands, questions and expressions of volition . Statements
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September, 2010 8 Statements Concept Property Statement True or false
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September, 2010 9 Musée du Louvre, Paris, France Bust of Socrates
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September, 2010 10 Examples Proposition: Command: Question: Expression of Volition: Socrates is a man. Be a man, Socrates. Is Socrates a man? Oh, that Socrates were a man.
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September, 2010 11 Socrates and Xanthippe, Van Veen, 1612 . Be a man, Socrates! That sentence is neither true nor false, Xanthippe.
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September, 2010 12 Two Laws of Logic
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September, 2010 13 Two Laws of Logic This property of being either true or false brings us to two fundamental laws of Logic. 1. The Law of Non-Contradiction 2. The Law of the Excluded Middle or the Law of Bivalence Let’s use two simple propositions as an example. Socrates is a man Proposition Socrates is not a man Negation of that proposition
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September, 2010 14 First, a Little Shorthand … for the sake of clarity and brevity, logicians and philosophers sometimes like to represent statements with symbols, or refer to them in a short hand way they find it very convenient to represent statements with lower case letters like a, b, c or p, q, r Socrates is a man. p Socrates is not a man not-p ( can also be written ~p or -p ) tilde p
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September, 2010 15 Example symbolize the following: Lassie is a dog.
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