CT, Reasoning and Critical Thinking-Part 2-Chpt. 1 & Additional Concepts-September, 2010

CT, Reasoning and Critical Thinking-Part 2-Chpt. 1 & Additional Concepts-September, 2010

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September, 2010 1 Reasoning and Critical Thinking Part Two CT , Chpt. 1 Additional Concepts
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September, 2010 2 Arguments
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September, 2010 3 Arguments When a group of statements exhibits the logical relationship of inference, it is no longer a mere set of propositions. It is an argument.
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September, 2010 4 Arguments An argument is a set of statements that claims that one or more of those statements, called the premises , support another of them, the conclusion .
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September, 2010 5 Anatomy of an Argument Premise Premise Conclusion P1 P2 C
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September, 2010 6 Example Premise One: Socrates is a man. Premise Two: All men are mortal. Conclusion: Therefore Socrates is mortal.
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September, 2010 7 Example Timmy’s mother might reason as she lets him out to play: Lassie saved Timmy from drowning last month. Lassie pulled Timmy from a burning building last week. Lassie fought off a bear that was attacking Timmy this week. Therefore, Lassie will keep Timmy out of trouble today.
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September, 2010 8 Logical Strength
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September, 2010 9 Logical Strength We do not simply wish to argue, we wish to argue well. What makes for a good argument? This brings us to another key concept: logical strength. This is a property of arguments.
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September, 2010 10 Arguments Concept Property Argument Logically strong or logically weak
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September, 2010 11 Logical Strength An argument always involve inference, or the claim that its premises support its conclusion. When we assess an argument, we must consider the inference it involves. As an inference, it claims that its premises support its conclusion. But do they? Do the premises really support the conclusion? When the premises really do support the conclusion, the argument is logically strong. When they do not really support the conclusion, the argument is logically weak.
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September, 2010 12 Logical Strength Definition: An argument has logical strength when the premises, if true, actually provide support for the conclusion, or make it reasonable to believe the conclusion is true.
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September, 2010 13 Example: Logically Strong Argument All men are mortal. Socrates is a man Therefore Socrates is mortal.
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September, 2010 14 Example: Logically Strong Argument If Lassie loves Timmy, then he will always protect him.
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