ME364_machining_PSB - Valery Marinov Manufacturing...

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Planing, Shaping and Broaching 117 Valery Marinov, Manufacturing Technology 6.4 PLANING, SHAPING AND BROACHING This section covers several machining operations that are used to machine straight and open external or internal surfaces: v Planing and shaping : these operations are used to machine straight open mainly exter- nal surfaces with a single-point cutting tool; v Broaching is used to machine straight and open basically internal surface of complex cross-section shapes by means of a special tool called a broach . P LANING AND SHAPING Planing and shaping are similar operations, which differ in the kinematics of the process. Planing is a machining operation in which the primary cutting motion is performed by the workpiece and feed motion is imparted to the cutting tool. In shaping, the primary motion is performed by the tool, and feed by the workpiece: Kinematics of shaping and planing. The cutting conditions in planing and shaping are illustrated in the figure. Only the shaping operation is portrayed but the cutting conditions are essentially the same and for planing: Cutting conditions in orthogonal ( Left ) and oblique ( Right ) shaping.
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Planing, Shaping and Broaching 118 Valery Marinov, Manufacturing Technology Cutting velocity V in planing is linear and constant along the cutting path. In shaping, the picture is more complicated. The cutting tool is held in the tool post mounted in the ram, which reciprocates over the work with a forward stroke, cutting at velocity V and a quick return stroke at higher velocity. The cutting velocity is therefore not constant along the cutting path. It increases from zero to maximum in the beginning of the stroke and gradually decreases to zero at the end of the stroke. The cutting speed V is assumed to be twice the average forwarded ram velocity.
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