notes_C142A_Ch4 lecture notes by Dr. Carroll

notes_C142A_Ch4 lecture notes by Dr. Carroll - Chapter 4:...

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Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions (MOLARITY!) 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations
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Solutes • The thing being dissolved, mixed, diluted! Solvents • The material doing the dissolving, mixing, dilution! Solution • The final combination of the dissolution, mixing, and dilution! Definitions – Solutes, Solvents and Solutions
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Definitions – Solutes, Solvents and Solutions Solutes • Compounds extracted from coffee grounds. Solvents • Water Solution • Morning coffee
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WATER water is an important solvent – dissolves many substances water is a POLAR molecule hydration breaks ionic compounds into anions and cations water dissolves different ionic compounds to a different degree water also dissolves some nonionic substances if they are polar (ethanol-water) nonpolar substances are not dissolved (fats, oils)
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Figure 4.1: A space-filling model of the water molecule. More on molecular shapes in Ch 13.
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Zumdahl Figure 4.2 Polar water molecules dissolve salts (ionic compounds) through hydration Cation Anion
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Zumdahl Figure 4.3 Ethanol Molecules are Polar (contain a directional O-H bond) “LIKE DISSOLVING LIKE”
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The Role of Water as a Solvent: the Solubility of Ionic Compounds Electrical conductivity The flow of electrical current in a solution is an indicator of the presence of ions in solution and the solubility of ionic compounds. When sodium chloride dissolves in water the ions become solvated/hydrated , and are surrounded by water molecules. These ions are labeled “ aqueous ”, are free to move throughout the solution, and conduct electricity (they help help electrons move through out the solution). NaCl (s) + H 2 O (l) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Electrolyte A substance that conducts a current when dissolved in water. Soluble, ionic compounds that dissociate completely conduct a large current and are called strong electrolytes.
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Electrical Conductivity of Ionic Solutions
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Produce ions in aqueous solution and conduct electricity well. Strong electrolytes are soluble salts, strong acids, and strong bases . Strong acids produce H + ions when they dissolve in water. HCl, HNO 3 , and H 2 SO 4 are strong acids: HNO 3 ( aq ) → H + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) Strong bases produce OH - ions when they dissolve in water: NaOH and KOH are strong bases: NaOH( s ) → Na + ( aq ) + OH - ( aq ) Strong Electrolytes
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HCl (aq) is completely ionized. Strong acids fully
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2010 for the course CHEM 142 taught by Professor Zoller,williamh during the Fall '07 term at University of Washington.

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notes_C142A_Ch4 lecture notes by Dr. Carroll - Chapter 4:...

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