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autonomic_ns_text_summary - LIONIC AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM...

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GLIONIC TRANSMITTER GLIONIC TRANSMITTER AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM summary The autonomic nervous system contains millions of nerve cells in ganglia outside of the CNS. They are all regulated by the CNS, mostly by nuclei in the HYPOTHALAMUS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. The autonomic nerves are all “MOTOR”, that is, going to effectors, which are either glands (exocrine, like sweat, salivary, digestive, or endocrine, like the adrenal medulla), or muscles, but NOT skeletal muscle. The muscles they innervate are CARDIAC (striated, but all fibers inter-connected with electrically-conducting GAP JUNCTIONS) or SMOOTH (also called VISCERAL; its special features: may or may not have gap junctions [called single-unit if they do, and usually capable of contracting in absence of innervation ]). There are two parts to the autonomic system, one that generally revs you up (SYMPATHETIC, the fight-or-flight part) and one that relaxes you (PARASYMPATHETIC). Many organs are innervated by both, e.g., heart, iris of eye,
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