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Unformatted text preview: ProFile 2 UNIT 5 Marketing
MARKETING VERSUS SELLING SEGMENTATION OF CUSTOMERS The terms selling and marketing are sometimes
used carelessly as interchangeable synonyms, but
there are important differences. A sales-based
approach starts with a product and involves
finding customers who will buy it. By contrast, a
marketing approach has the needs, wants and
aspirations of customers as its starting point –
all else flows from this. Marketing involves
successfully identifying or anticipating the needs
of customers. Satisfying customers may entail
providing them with the right kind of products
and services, at the right price, distributing them
in the right way, with the right kind of customer
care and after-sales service. So, while selling is an
integral part of the marketing process,
marketing encompasses much more. A crucial part of the marketing process is to
correctly identify the type of customer that you
want to target. A product which aims at
everyone is likely to satisfy nobody. THE MARKETING MIX: THE FOUR
Ps OR FOUR Cs?
What marketing involves is often called the
Marketing Mix, and is expressed as the four Ps,
or four Cs. The Marketing Mix is the blend of
the following elements:
• Product What is on offer? What are its USPs?
• Place How and where will it be sold and
• Promotion How will the customer be told?
What is the best medium for the message?
Or we can define marketing from a customer’s
perspective with the four Cs, as follows.
• Customer value The value / utility of the
product as perceived by the customer (this
replaces Product in the four Ps).
• Cost to the customer The product’s price and
additional cost in time and trouble (replaces
• Convenience Ease of purchase (replaces
• Communication Emphasizing the two-way
process between buyer and seller (replaces the
one-way process suggested by Promotion).
See the ProFile Student’s site: www.oup.com/elt/profile Socio-economic groupings which classify people
from A-E according to their occupation are
sometimes used in Britain. This would rank an
A1 as someone in the top management bracket,
and an ordinary worker as a C1. The ACORN
system, based on where people live, provides a
better profile of consumers.
ACORN (A classification of residential
neighbourhoods) has 39 neighbourhood types,
and is a more accurate way of profiling
consumers. It is used in marketing research and
for mail shots.
VALS (Values and life styles segmentation)
classifies people by their values and how they
live. For example, belongers are patriotic, stable,
sentimental traditionalists who are content with
their lives; societally conscious are mature,
successful, mission-oriented people who like
A further classification is the Family life cycle,
which described people by the stage they are at
in their family lives.
5 young singles
young couples no children
couples with a child under 6
couples with dependent children
older couples no children at home (empty
6 older single people
One more classification is that of Marketing
generations: this groups people according to
when they were born: baby boomers, generation
X, generation Y. The theory is that people born
around the same period have similar attitudes
and aspirations. Baby boomers, the generation
born in the fifteen years or so after WWII, have
been responsible for the success of many
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- Spring '10