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Unformatted text preview: 44 Key vocabulary The characteristics of management often vary according to national culture, which Lead-in 1 Managers from this country 0 consider professional and technical skills to
be very important. 0 have a strong sense of authority. 0 respect the different positions in the
hierarchy of their companies. 0 clearly define how jobs should be done. _ 0 are very loyal to their companies and expect 2 -
their subordinates to obey them. 0 are often older than in other countries. can determine how managers are trained, how they lead people and how they
approach their jobs. The amount of responsibility of any individual in a company depends on the position
that he or she occupies in its hierarchy. Managers, for example, are responsible for
leading the people directly under them, who are called subordinates. To do this
successfully, they must use their authority, which is the right to take decisions and
give orders. Managers often delegate authority. This means that employees at lower
levels in the company hierarchy can use their initiative, that is make decisions
without asking their manager. 1 Read the portraits of managers in five different countries and decide which
country each one corresponds to. 0 Germany - Poland 0 Sweden - The United Kingdom
0 The United States 2
Managers from this country receive a general education. delegate authority. take a practical approach to management.
have relatively formal relationships at work.
encourage their employees to work
individually. believe it is important to continue education
and training at work. International Business Styles 4
3 Managers from this country
managers from th'5 country 0 generally attend business schools.
0 consider social qualities to be as important - communicate easily and informally at work.
as education. 0 admire the qualities of a leader.
0 encourage their employees to take an I 0 expect everyone to work hard. Individual
interest in their work. performance is measured and initiative is
0 pay close attention to the quality of 7 rewarded.
working life. 0 have competitive and aggressive attitudes to
0 do not use as much authority as in other .‘ work.
countries. 0 often accept innovation and change. 0 appreciate low—level decision—making.
0 are often women. 5
Managers from this country 0 have either gained their experience in state—owned
enterprises or are competitive self—starters. 0 older managers hold technical degrees rather than business
qualifications. 0 work very long hours and expect their subordinates to do so. - are extremely innovative, optimistic and determined. 0 are quick to invest in the development of new products,
market techniques and methods of production and
distribution. 2 In groups, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to
management, and say which one you would find the most attractive. Do any of
these proﬁles correspond to management practices in your country? ...
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- Spring '10