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Bio 173 Paper 2

Bio 173 Paper 2 - Shanna Cheng Yang Xia Section 084 The...

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Shanna Cheng 12/1/10 Yang Xia Section 084 The effects of interspecific and intraspecific competition on rye ( Secale cereale ), tomato ( lycopersicon esculentum ), and alfalfa ( medicago sativa ) Abstract: Density and competition affect plant growth. A detailed understanding of the competition between species of Secale cereale (rye), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is not yet understood. Over an 8-week period, 25 seeds of each species, 50 seeds of each species, or 25 seeds from each species in two pots will be planted, one with fertilizer and one without fertilizer. After this germination period, plants were cut, measured, and weighted. Evaluating the p-values when comparing cultures as well as the directionality of the means if the p-values were statistically significant assessed the effects of competition . Rye was not affected by growth of alfalfa or tomatoes. Tomatoes were only affected by itself and rye. Alfalfa was not affected by itself but was affected by rye and tomatoes. Rye were shown to be the best competitor, tomatoes second, and alfalfa last. 1. Introduction Organisms that interact with one another in the same environment can have an array of effects on both organisms. In an environment where organisms live together, organisms can have positive, negative, or neutral effects on one another. These effects are types of symbiosis. Symbiosis is close and often long-term interactions between different biological species. Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism - the host - is the
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source of food and/or shelter for another organism, the parasite. In this relationship, all of the benefits go to the parasite; the host is harmed by the relationship. An example is a human and a tapeworm living in the intestines. The tapeworm derives food (and shelter) from the human host; the human is denied the nutrition that is consumed by the tapeworm. In commensalism, one organism benefits from the relationship while the other is neither helped nor hurt. An example of commensalism would be barnacles adhering to the skin of a whale or shell of a mollusk. The barnacle benefits by finding a habitat where nutrients are available. The presence of barnacle populations does not appear to hamper or enhance the survival of the animals carrying them. Mutualism is a relationship in which both organisms involved benefit. An example of mutualism is the sea anemone and hermit crab; the sea anemones give protection to the crab using its stinging cells, and it remolds its shell to fit the crab while the hermit crab allows the sea anemones to consume the remains of its food, thus it also provides the sea anemones with food supply, which makes it a relationship beneficial to both. A detailed understanding of the relationships between Secale cereale (rye), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), and Medicago sativa (alfalfa) can show us the effects of competition on species. Competition can be interspecific and/or intraspecific. Interspecific competition is between different species
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Bio 173 Paper 2 - Shanna Cheng Yang Xia Section 084 The...

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