Definitions - II LIST OF CONCEPTS AND NAMES Essentialism...

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II. LIST OF CONCEPTS AND NAMES Essentialism : the belief that differences between women and men are natural, grounded in biology. Ex: doctors change intersex babies to one sex with surgery. Social constructionism : belief that differences between women and men are socially created. Ex: social expectations for boys and girls, separate activities. Gender socialization : the process through which people learn and internalize the values of society, how you are raised in society and gender roles that you take on. Arapesh, Mundugumour, Tchambuli : Arapesh is gentle cooperation, Mundugumour is very aggressive, competitive, and Tchambuli Anticipatory socialization : teaching kids to do “gender appropriate” tasks that anticipate the sorts of gendered roles they will be expected to play as adults. Ex. playhouse at school that only girls are allowed to use. Gender attribution : defining a person’s behavior through a gender lens. Ex. Men are Doing gender : performance to display gender and fit in, use of clothing, greetings, toys, and sports. Ex: Barbie dolls and how girls try to be like her, while the boys yell and show toughness to be masculine like the older men they see. Historical age cohorts : different gander traits are emphasized in certain eras, come about from certain fears or encouragements for gender roles. Structural constraint : stereotypes that limit professional and personal achievements based on what are the common gender roles expected of men and women. Ex: men are the majority of CEO’s, military personnel are mostly buff men. Homosocial realms : same-gender organizations that encourage a stronger gendered role. Ex: Boy scouts to counter the feminization of men (crisis of masculinity), fraternities. Gender inversion ritual : certain acts that are socially acceptable even though they typically are specific for the other gender. Ex: tomboys. Habitus and field : the habits of how you integrate what you learn from the field you’re your habits and mindset (habitus), field is any space where you have social connections. Ex: some boys like the barbies, but then rejected them as they saw it was a “girl” thing and were influenced by peer pressure. Intersex infants : infants are not clearly born a boy or girl (chromosomes XXY, XYY, genitalia, inner ovaries or testes - gonads), shows how people want to categorize them into the binary system. Multidimensional space of gender : Anne Fausto-Sterling proposes 5 sexes to counter the binary system, and then says this is not enough, shows that there are many possibilities. Ex: Facebook is bad in enforcing the binary, two-sex system. Public misattribution : presenting oneself that makes other people perceive them as a different gender than what they are biologically. Ex: Betsy Lucal mistaken as a guy.
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