II. LIST OF CONCEPTS AND NAMES
: the belief that differences between women and men are natural, grounded
in biology. Ex: doctors change intersex babies to one sex with surgery.
: belief that differences between women and men are socially
created. Ex: social expectations for boys and girls, separate activities.
: the process through which people learn and internalize the values of
society, how you are raised in society and gender roles that you take on.
Arapesh, Mundugumour, Tchambuli
: Arapesh is gentle cooperation, Mundugumour is
very aggressive, competitive, and Tchambuli
: teaching kids to do “gender appropriate” tasks that anticipate
the sorts of gendered roles they will be expected to play as adults. Ex. playhouse at
school that only girls are allowed to use.
: defining a person’s behavior through a gender lens. Ex. Men are
: performance to display gender and fit in, use of clothing, greetings, toys,
and sports. Ex: Barbie dolls and how girls try to be like her, while the boys yell and
show toughness to be masculine like the older men they see.
Historical age cohorts
: different gander traits are emphasized in certain eras, come about
from certain fears or encouragements for gender roles.
: stereotypes that limit professional and personal achievements based
on what are the common gender roles expected of men and women. Ex: men are the
majority of CEO’s, military personnel are mostly buff men.
: same-gender organizations that encourage a stronger gendered role.
Ex: Boy scouts to counter the feminization of men (crisis of masculinity), fraternities.
Gender inversion ritual
: certain acts that are socially acceptable even though they
typically are specific for the other gender. Ex: tomboys.
Habitus and field
: the habits of how you integrate what you learn from the field you’re
your habits and mindset (habitus), field is any space where you have social
connections. Ex: some boys like the barbies, but then rejected them as they saw it was
a “girl” thing and were influenced by peer pressure.
: infants are not clearly born a boy or girl (chromosomes XXY, XYY,
genitalia, inner ovaries or testes - gonads), shows how people want to categorize them
into the binary system.
Multidimensional space of gender
: Anne Fausto-Sterling proposes 5 sexes to counter the
binary system, and then says this is not enough, shows that there are many
possibilities. Ex: Facebook is bad in enforcing the binary, two-sex system.
: presenting oneself that makes other people perceive them as a
different gender than what they are biologically. Ex: Betsy Lucal mistaken as a guy.