HomoErectus-outline5-08

HomoErectus-outline5-08 - The Ice Age and Homo erectus Homo...

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The Ice Age and Homo erectus
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Homo ergaster is African in origin Homo erectus diverged from H. ergaster ca. 1 mya -- first early hominid fossil found outside of Europe was Trinil 2 fossil skullcap from Solo River in Java -- earliest of these date to 1.8 mya -- Java fossil called Pithecanthropus erectus by Eugene Dubois -- 40 individuals have been recovered from Java roughly equivalent to the number of fossils found at the caves of Choukoutien in China. Homo erectus/ergaster
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Homo erectus populations disappeared as other groups of archaic Homo sapiens emerged roughly 500- 200,000 years ago.
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KNM-ER 3733 Koobi Fora, Kenya adult female Homo ergaster 1.75 mya
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KNM-ER 3883 Koobi For a ca. 1.5 mya Homo ergaster A skull cap with an intact right orbit lack of a supraorbital sulcus (depression behind eye orbit) behind the massive brow ridges; likely a male adult
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Homo erectus China (430-200K)
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Homo erectus anatomy long skull shape with thick cranial walls. back of skull has protuberance known as transverse torus Back of occipital is sharply angled Large and prominent browridge (supraorbital torus) which joins the rest of the frontal bone at a depression called the sulcus .
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Homo erectus anatomy (cont’d) pinched/constricted behind brow ridge Cranial capacity average around 1000cc (range 750 – 1250) skulls are bell-shaped low sloping forehead, protruding face and no chin sagittal keel - long ridge along top of skull from front to back
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Homo erectus anatomy (cont’d) -- nose shows the first instances of protrusion -- dentition nearly identical to modern humans, molars are larger mandible more robust. -- reduced jaw compared to earlier hominids -- decrease in the size of posterior (front) teeth
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Homo erectus anatomy (cont’d) -- decrease in size of facial structure, incisors increase in size through time. -- increase in strength over Homo habilis in large areas of muscle attachment at base and back of the skull (stronger necks and jaws)
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-- Below the neck Homo erectus anatomy differs little from modern humans except limbs are larger and heavier with a short, stocky build, average 5.5 feet tall -- rib cage is conical in shape -- Capable of language? Modern thought processes??? Homo erectus anatomy (cont’d)
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Homo erectus (cont’d) -- Endocasts of cranium show evidence of hemispheric specialization in the brain similar to modern humans. -- Implications for symbolization, hand-eye coordination, rudimentary communication. -- Basicranial anatomy used to determine capability of speech like modern humans. In australopithecines, basicranial anatomy similar to apes, so no speech indicated -- shape of vocal tract similar to 6 year old human child
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KNM-WT 15000 Nariokotome Male Child 1.6 mya
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(KNM-WT 15000) fairly complete Homo ergaster find (1.6 mya) from bank of Nariokotome River fossils found in silts between volcanic ash layers younger than Koobi Fora H. erectus skeleton or (KNM - ER 3733) 1.75 mya. height (5 ft. 3 ")
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HomoErectus-outline5-08 - The Ice Age and Homo erectus Homo...

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