Lecture 1-S08-outline

Lecture 1-S08-outline - What does it really mean to be...

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What does it really mean to be human? Anthropology -- study of humans in all places and all times, present and past BIOLOGY << >> CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY EARTH SCIENCES << >> ARCHAEOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY << >> PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Ecology --->> Physical Anthropology and Archaeology Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics
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Cultural Anthropology Language, Art, Religion, Kinship, Subsistence (Economics), Technology, Social and Political Organization, all observed directly. Archaeology must infer these social components from material remains (artifacts) Ethnography and ethnology
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Physical Anthropology Study of comparative anatomy of apes and humans including the lower primates and fossil hominids. Includes the study of human variation and primatology Cultural Anthropology -- Study of contemporary social groups and their institutions (e.g. religion, kinship, economy, rules of residence, politics, art, etc.) and very often involves the study of simpler societies (as opposed to urban-industrial complex societies) Ethnohistory focuses on cultures of the recent past
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Archaeology -- subfield of cultural anthropology definition: the study of past material culture (artifacts) and associated environmental and residual information to explain the origin, nature and development of past human lifeways. -- material remains of past society allow for its reconstruction, i.e. tools, diet information, structures, burials, art, etc.) provide sufficient information to reconstruct activities of the past. We look at the arrangement of artifacts and the ideas these artifacts symbolize. Archaeologists are anthropologists who use specialized techniques to recover the material remains of past cultures -- archaeologists may be regarded as anthropologists who study the lifeways of dead societies while cultural anthropologists study living societies
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Culture unique characteristic of humans -- it is extra-somatic -- it is learned and transmitted (not instinctive) -- it is symbolic definition: "an integrated system of learned behavior patterns which are characteristic of members of a society and which are not the result of biological inheritance“ In Haviland’s text, culture is defined as “unconscious standards by which societies (structured groups of people) operate” – socially learned, not acquired by biological inheritance. Do chimps have culture or proto-culture?
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Ethology study of the natural behavior of organisms under natural conditions (e.g. Jane Goodall's chimp studies, Dian Fossey's gorilla studies, and Birute Galdikas's studies of orangutans). -- when we study contemporary human groups, particularly hunter-gatherers, to model archaeological representations of such cultures, this is called ethnographic analogy .
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Cultural Evolution as explanation of diversity in cultures Theorists of 19th century thought that all cultures must inevitably pass through stages of cultural evolution such as savagery >> barbarism >> civilization The modern view is multilinear and takes into account the tremendous diversity of cultures world-wide.
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2010 for the course ANTH 208 taught by Professor Wall during the Fall '08 term at Towson.

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Lecture 1-S08-outline - What does it really mean to be...

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