Upperpaleolithic-outline5-08

Upperpaleolithic-outline5-08 - Upper Paleolithic Stone Tool...

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Upper Paleolithic Stone Tool Technology: -- there are regional differences in UP culture -- chronological differences and techno-functional differences are represented in stylistic differences in tool forms (shapes of tools and ornaments), types of ornaments and raw materials used. Sequence: Late Mousterian >> Chatelperronian >> blade production
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-- economy in stone tool production, i.e., more economical blade tools gradually replaced the more wasteful Levallois technique - Blade industry involved production of parallel sided flakes (typically 4:1 length to width ratio) from carefully prepared cylindrical-shaped cores - - punch and hammerstone technique may have been used
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-- Composite tools used. -- represents portable technology with efficient-edged tools -- 0ther tool types include burins for engraving or grooving bone, ivory & wood -- scrapers -- backed knives -- a well-developed polished bone-antler industry (e.g. engraved harpoons) By 10-8,000 BP this evolved into microlith tool technology for forest (taiga) adaptation. Bow and arrow technology developed by ca. 20,000 years ago
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The shift to blade production is complemented by the production of tools made from bone, antler, and ivory. Antler used for points, spearthrowers, musical instruments (bone flutes), needles, and awls. Ivory preferred for figurines and ornaments. malleable yet durable properties of bone, antler and ivory made it a useful raw material. While handaxes are not known from the Upper Paleolithic, simple chopping tools are present.
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What constitutes the UP tool kit ? Blades, points, scrapers, burins, gravers, backed knives Aurignacian 35-27,000 BP -- always earliest UP culture Use of antler and bone for a significant percentage of tool kit including spear points. Great variation in types of ornaments and raw materials used (e.g. bone, antler, ivory, teeth, shell). Portable art (e.g., figurines) is heavy and poorly made.
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Gravettian : 26-20,000 BP -- preference for shell as a raw material -- smaller blades and denticulates -- Common in eastern Europe and the Ukraine. Solutrean : 22-18,000 BP -- finest stone working craftsmanship -- involved heat-treating flint before pressure flaking -- also involved a very selective use of fine quality raw materials -- unknown in eastern, central or far northern Europe (limited mostly -- to France and surrounding region). Magdalenian : 18-10,000 BP -- always latest -- elaborate cave art -- use of flakes as well as blades extensively for tool manufacture -- Fine bone, antler and ivory work, esp. harpoons
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Cro-Magnon (1868 find) -- numerous finds in Europe -- Cro-Magnon physical type (from the rockshelter of the same name) is defined on the basis of European finds (esp. France) dating to 30,000 years ago Fossil evidence shows highly variable population with 1600 cc cranial capacity and height ranging from 5'4" to 6'0" with high foreheads and prominent chins, and high-bridged noses. These still considered to be oldest modern human fossils in Europe.
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2010 for the course ANTH 208 taught by Professor Wall during the Fall '08 term at Towson.

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Upperpaleolithic-outline5-08 - Upper Paleolithic Stone Tool...

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