Neanderthal-Part2-outline

Neanderthal-Part2-outline - Neanderthal Sites The total...

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Unformatted text preview: Neanderthal Sites The total sample of Neanderthal remains that have been recovered from archaeological excavations is around 5 - 600 Krapina- (150-130K) www. krapina.com stratified rockshelter in Croatia -- first excavated 1899-- largest collection of Neanderthal remains (ca. 80)-- evidence of Neanderthals living into their 50s but most between 16-24 years of age-- high foreheads and similar long bones to humans-- healed broken arm, amputation of a hand, osteoarthritis-- faunal remains (rhinoceros, cave bear, wild ox, beaver, and red deer).-- Cut marks on some of bones could be from defleshing as part of burial ritual Vindija (45K) large cave site discovered in 1932 recently re-dated to 28K-- DNA samples taken from Neanderthal remains-- analysis of Neanderthal bones shows high % meat in diet-- faunal evidence shows medium to large mammals hunted-- earliest dated specimens (45K) from the site are Neanderthals-- Neanderthal remains show physical features (e.g nasal breadth, reduction of brow ridges) comparable to early central European Homo sapiens. -- Vindija Neanderthals show change in direction of early modern humans.-- hybrids or not? Combe-Grenal : 113 - 44 K-- periodically looted throughout the 1800s for finds of bones and artifacts.-- excavated by Francois Bordes-- one of the first Paleolithic sites recognized anywhere in the world.-- 65 layers represented (13 meters thick consisting of loess, rock debris from roof cave- ins, and sediments washing into the cave from areas upslope)-- basal layer extreme cold ( NAP > 85%) and fauna > 95% reindeer NAP = non-arboreal pollen-- in lowest levels only flake tools represented, and just above . a few handaxes. -- some of lower layers contained hundreds of stone tools along with animal bones such as red deer, reindeer, antelope, wild goat and rabbit. In middle and upper levels, various tool kits found of Mousterian types like Quina, Ferrassie, Denticulate, and Typical. -- in Layer No. 50, pit capped with limestone slabs. Inside pit was a reddened soil with flint artifacts and fragments of bone i.e. a Neanderthal burial. Red earth appears to be a pigment such as ocher that was crushed and spread over the pit in which the individual was buried. Features at Combe Grenal include open hearths minimally prepared-- Structural features indicated by post molds -- Area in front of shelter was primary butchering area evidenced by larger disarticulated animal parts and small hearths w/ flint knives and scrapers.-- interior of the shelter showed secondary butchering activities . Le Moustier produced similar pits containing Neanderthal burials with finely made stone tools intentionally placed in the grave with the individual....
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Neanderthal-Part2-outline - Neanderthal Sites The total...

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