Neanderthal-Part1outline

Neanderthal-Part1outline - Classic/Progressive Neanderthal...

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Classic/Progressive Neanderthal Archaic Homo sapiens Classic Neanderthal remains first discovered when workmen uncovered fossil bones near Dusseldorf in Neander Valley of Germany in 1856.
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Mid to late Pleistocene Glaciations and Interglacials Mindel-Riss Interglacial 435 – 230K (early Neanderthal) Riss ................... 230 – 187K Riss-Würm Interglacial 187 – 70K (Neanderthal) Würm ................... 70,000 - 10,500 years ago (Wisconsin) Postglacial (Holocene) 10,500 years ago >>> present
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Lower Paleolithic 800K - 90,000 yrs ago (BP) Middle Paleolithic 90,000 - 45,000 BP Chatelperronian - 45-30,000 BP Upper Paleolithic 45 - 10,000 BP
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Uneven Fossil Record for last 200,0000 years Western Europe has good evidence for late Neanderthal populations but not for early modern humans Eastern and Central Europe have good samples of early modern humans but not Neanderthals Asian evidence is very incomplete from 150 – 30K During this period there are multiple forms of hominids and variations within each form
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In Africa, the final sequence shows Homo erectus >>> Archaic Homo sapiens at ca. 1 mya >> anatomically modern humans ca. 150K Early modern humans evolved from Archaic Homo sapiens in South Africa when Neanderthals were evolving and spreading throughout Europe (200-150K) Earliest finds of Early Modern Humans are from Africa Some early modern human finds come from caves in the Levant (eastern Mediterranean) (formerly called Progressive Neanderthals)
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Sites with poor data but Archaic Homo sapiens forms: Greece, France, England, Germany, all show poor dates and/or contexts due to early discovery (19th C.) or looting or unscientific recovery methods
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Archaic Homo sapiens Petralona cave (Greece) -- 1220 cc (350-400K) -- low, wide brain case and heavy muscle attachment characteristic of Neanderthals but skull shows a "mosaic of features" that relate to Neanderthal, Homo erectus and Early Modern Humans). Petralona Cave
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Montmaurin jaw from France (and Mauer jaw) from Heidelberg, Germany. Neither jaw shows the forward extension of the face (showing a premolar gap ) as is evident in most Neanderthals.
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Arago, France 200-400K Ancestral Neanderthal form?
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Jinniushan ( AHs ), ca. 280-250K (ESR and U-series) -- skull is 1330-1390cc (within modern range) -- similar to Dali skull but more "modern" looking.
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Hexian China 200-300K -- very late Homo erectus Contemporaneous with Archaic Homo sapiens in China Most complete In China outside Choukoutien Cave Similar to Java Specimens and Choukoudien
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Hexian (Homo erectus) 200 -300K -- skull cap (adult male), left mandible and 12 teeth -- hominid fossils from China suggest continuity of evolution from Homo erectus to Archaic Homo sapiens, but dates overlap and terminal dates for H. erectus are unclear
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Neanderthal-Part1outline - Classic/Progressive Neanderthal...

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