Paleo-MesolithicOutline

Paleo-MesolithicOutline - Solutrean hypothesis similarities...

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Solutrean hypothesis --- similarities in technology betw. Solutrean and Paleoindian tools --- new DNA evidence linking Siberia with North America refutes this idea
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First human settlement of North America Pre-Clovis: sites in North & South America may pre-date 12,000 BC time frame (as early as 40K) for entry of humans into North America Clovis supporters believe humans here only as early as 13,000 years ago.
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Clovis ( 11,200 - 10,900 yrs ago) -- oldest firmly documented archaeological culture in North America -- Commonly associated with remains of mammoth, bison, and other large (extinct) mammals.
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Meadowcroft Rockshelter SW Pennsylvania -- pre-Clovis date of 17 - 14,000 yrs ago -- small blade assemblage found below Clovis levels
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Plano (10,000 to 7000 B.P) -- many sites associated with bison drives into arroyos and over cliffs
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End of the Ice Age extinctions: -- environmental deterioration -- poor adaptability of megafauna -- overkill of dwindling megafauna populations Elephant extinction was rapid (loss of coarse grass habitats) Long-horned ( Bison antiquus ) bison disappear next Others extinctions include camelids, horses, tapirs, peccary Other Bison species adapted by becoming smaller and became principal game of Great Plains Indians
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Monte Verde (Chile) 13,200 – 12,400 yrs ago -- long-term campsite -- gathered variety of vegetable foods (42 edible species) -- earth and timber foundations (3 X 4 meters) in peat bog -- wooden objects preserved
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Archaic and Mesolithic Periods Holocene - extinction of many large herd animals -- movement of reindeer and other animal populations out of their once extensive ranges -- shift in human adaptations to broad spectrum adaptation, i.e. more flexible hunting and gathering strategy that involved exploiting broader array of food and plant resources End of the Mesolithic corresponds to appearance of domestication of plants and animals
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Broad spectrum adaptation makes populations less vulnerable to fluctuations in food resources -- eventually food storage technology develops (e.g., pits dug into ground) along with sedentism
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During Mesolithic, development of more efficient and smaller stone, antler, bone and wooden tools -- specialized tools adapted to hunting and fishing -- In stone tool forms, new Mesolithic tools are called microliths
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Archaic Period : (ca. 9000-3500 yrs ago) North America -- development of new technologies and a variety of tools to meet a broad range of subsistence & technological needs (hunting, fishing, plant processing) Tool forms reflect regional stylistic trends (e.g., Shield, Maritime, Desert, Plains Archaic regions)
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