HIST 5 MIDTERM + FINAL REVIEW.docx - 1 Condottieri...

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1. Condottieri Condottieri were the leaders of the professional military free companies contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance. Condottieri were made up with foreign armies, thus lacked of determined ideas and goals beyond personal gain, they also led to a series of civil war in Italy, which made Italy falling apart during the Renaissance. Condottieri contributed to the decline in Italy's political order which divided Italy into multiple city-states, each struggled with one another. 有待补充 2. Defenestration of Prague An incident happened in Bohemia in which multiple people were defenestrated in 1618. The Defenestration of Prague marked the beginning of a Bohemian revolt against the Habsburg emperor, which was one the opening phases of the thirty years' war. The thirty years' war affected much of central Europe, and was quite destructive to territories. 3. Bastards! a. Time: 1400-1500 b. Place: Italy, Europe c. Birth outside lawful marriage -> inherit d. Catholic marriage law e. only depends on the social status of parents, rather than marriage status, heritage f. Celebrate ancestry & power attached to that kind of legitimacy, not operate subject to rigid Christian canon law rules g. The rule of Bastards: the son of the pope inherit 4. Edict of Nantes Edict of Nantes was signed in April 1598 by King IV of France, granting the Calvinist Protestants of France substantial rights in the nation. By giving limited religious freedom to Protestant, Henry IV was able to gain temporary peace in the state and restore prosperity in France. Edict of Nantes revealed the fact that political leaders at that time started to concern more about unified states rather than a single religion (known as politiques). 5. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes Louis XIV renounced the Edict and declared Protestantism illegal with the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685. Intense persecution on Protestant took place, thus drove many skilled and industrious individuals away from France. The revocation also damaged the perception of Louis XIV abroad as England and Protestant Germany held more detestation on the France king. 6. The Peace of Augsburg TPA is a treaty agreed by Charles V and the members of Schmalkalic League in 1555,
recognized that the empire no longer followed one religion. Each prince can determine which religion (catholic or protestant) to follow in his domain. Dissenters were allowed to emigrate. The treaty illustrated that different religions could coexist within an empire, leading to a tolerance between Protestant and Catholic. 7. Coffee Houses Firstly founded in mid-17th-century London, coffee houses were public social places for men to meet for conversation and commerce. As REASON became the dominant factor authority during the age of Enlightenment, coffee house became a place where men can exchange their ideas. Coffee houses were open to all who could pay, and thus provided a way in which all stratas can be exposed to a same idea. Coffee houses spread the idea of enlightenment by offering multiple printing materials, and

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