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Wuchap_01_09fall - Unit 1 Basic Concepts and Introductory...

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Unit1:BasicConceptsand IntroductoryRegresssionAnalysis Sources:Chapter1. Historicalperspectivesandbasicdefinitions(Section1.1). Planningandimplementationofexperiments(Section1.2). Fisher’sfundamentalprinciples(Section1.3). Simplelinearregression(Sections1.4-1.5). Multipleregression,variableselection(Sections1.6-1.7). Example:AirPollutionData(Section1.8). 2 Historicalperspectives AgriculturalExperiments: Comparisonsandselectionofvarieties(and/or treatments)inthepresenceofuncontrollablefieldconditions,Fisher’s pioneeringworkondesignofexperimentsandanalysisofvariance (ANOVA). IndustrialEra: Processmodelingandoptimization,Largebatchof materials,largeequipments,Box’sworkmotivatedinchemicalindustries andapplicabletootherprocessingindustries,regressionmodelingand responsesurfacemethodology. 3
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Historicalperspectives(Contd.) QualityRevolution: Qualityandproductivityimprovement,variation reduction,totalqualitymanagement,Taguchi’sworkonrobustparameter design,Six-sigmamovement. Alotofsuccessfulapplicationsinmanufacturing(cars,electronics,home appliances,etc.) CurrentTrendsandPotentialNewAreas: Computermodellingand experiments,largeandcomplexsystems,applicationstobiotechnology, nanotechnology,materialdevelopment,etc. 4 TypesofExperiments TreatmentComparisons: Purposeistocompareseveraltreatmentsofa factor(have4ricevarietiesandwouldliketoseeiftheyaredifferentin termsofyieldanddraughtresistence). VariableScreening: Havealargenumberoffactors,butonlyafeware important.Experimentshouldidentifytheimportantfew. ResponseSurfaceExploration: Afterimportantfactorshavebeen identified,theirimpactonthesystemisexplored;regressionmodelbuilding. 5
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TypesofExperiments(Contd.) SystemOptimization: Interestedindeterminingtheoptimumconditions (e.g.,maximizeyieldofsemiconductormanufacturingorminimizedefects). SystemRobustness: Wishtooptimizeasystemandalsoreducetheimpact ofuncontrollable(noise)factors.(e.g.,wouldlikecarstorunwellin differentroadconditionsanddifferentdrivinghabits;anICfabrication processtoworkwellindifferentconditionsofhumidityanddustlevels). 6 SomeDefinitions Factor: variablewhoseinfluenceuponaresponsevariableisbeingstudied intheexperiment. FactorLevel: numericalvaluesorsettingsforafactor. Trial (or run ):applicationofatreatmenttoanexperimentalunit. Treatmentorlevelcombination: setofvaluesforallfactorsinatrial. Experimentalunit: objecttowhichatreatmentisapplied. Randomization: usingachancemechanismtoassigntreatmentsto experimentalunitsorrunorder. 7
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SystematicApproachtoExperimentation Statetheobjectiveofthestudy. Choosetheresponsevariable ... shouldcorrespondtothepurposeofthe study. Nominal-the-best,larger-the-betterorsmaller-the-better . Choosefactorsandlevels.
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