Formulas: Mean = sum of scores/number of scores. Median =(n+1)/2. Standard error of mean .= standard deviation/square root of n. 68% =mean + and – standard error. 95% = mean+ and – 2(se). 99% = mean+ and – 3(se). Confidence interval: based on 68%, 95%, and 99%. ..the 68% confidence interval between this and that. Etc. Range =highest score – lowest score. Percentile rank =cum% above X + percent for X/2. Standard deviation =square root of sum of (scores – mean ) 2 / n-1. Z-score =(score – mean)/standard deviation.(remember when lower scores are better put mean before score) T-score =10(z-score)+50 Probability of a score being higher or lower than a given score: 50% + or – z-scores at .00 (- is above score and + is below score). Definitions: Measurement: collection of information on which a decision is based. Determines the degree to which an individual possesses a specific characteristic. Involves defining the characteristic to be measured and selecting the instrument used to assess the characteristic. Without eval and research measurement is pointless. Evaluation/Research: use of information gathered during measurement to make decisions/judgements.Not possible without measurement. Why do we need measurement and evaluation?: allow us to show that what we do matters. Evaluate effectiveness of rehab modalities, coaching techniques, training programs, instructional units, and medical procedures. Subjective measurement technique: lacks standardized scoring system. Introduces a source of error. Objective measurement technique : 2 or more people score the same test and assign similar scores. Criteria for scoring exist outside the scorers. Have a scoring system and are administered by a trained tester. Better than subjective because it is more reliable. Formative evaluation : (process) judgment of achievement during the process. Provides feedback to participants and programmers throughout the program. Allows modifications to program based on evaluation. Example/purpose: feedback to student and teacher during semester. Summative evaluation: (outcome) judgment of achievement at the end of the process. Example/purpose: Certification or grading at the end of a unit, or semester. Norm referenced standards : judges an individual’s performance in relation to others in a group. Test a large number of people of a defined group. Descriptive statistics are then used to develop standards. Used in K-12 settings, exercise, and public health settings. Norming method used is percentile
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