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Formulas:
Mean
= sum of scores/number of scores.
Median
=(n+1)/2.
Standard error of mean
.= standard deviation/square root of n.
68%
=mean + and – standard
error.
95%
=
mean+ and – 2(se).
99%
=
mean+ and – 3(se).
Confidence interval:
based on 68%, 95%, and 99%.
..the 68% confidence interval between this and that.
Etc.
Range
=highest score – lowest score.
Percentile rank
=cum% above
X + percent for X/2.
Standard deviation
=square root of sum of (scores – mean )
2
/ n1.
Z
score
=(score – mean)/standard deviation.(remember when lower scores are better put mean before score)
Tscore
=10(zscore)+50
Probability of a score being
higher or lower than a given score:
50% + or – zscores at .00 ( is above score and + is below score).
Definitions:
Measurement:
collection of information on which a decision is based. Determines the degree to which an individual possesses a specific characteristic.
Involves defining the characteristic to be measured and selecting the instrument used to assess the characteristic. Without eval and research measurement is pointless.
Evaluation/Research:
use of information gathered during measurement to make decisions/judgements.Not possible without measurement.
Why do we need
measurement and evaluation?:
allow us to show that what we do matters. Evaluate effectiveness of rehab modalities, coaching techniques, training programs,
instructional units, and medical procedures.
Subjective measurement technique:
lacks standardized scoring system. Introduces a source of error.
Objective
measurement technique
:
2 or more people score the same test and assign similar scores. Criteria for scoring exist outside the scorers. Have a scoring system and are
administered by a trained tester. Better than subjective because it is more reliable.
Formative evaluation
:
(process) judgment of achievement during the process.
Provides feedback to participants and programmers throughout the program. Allows modifications to program based on evaluation. Example/purpose: feedback to
student and teacher during semester.
Summative evaluation:
(outcome) judgment of achievement at the end of the process. Example/purpose: Certification or grading
at the end of a unit, or semester.
Norm referenced standards
:
judges an individual’s performance in relation to others in a group. Test a large number of people of a
defined group. Descriptive statistics are then used to develop standards. Used in K12 settings, exercise, and public health settings. Norming method used is percentile
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 Summer '08
 porter

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