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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introduction to Motor Development • Motor development is the study of changes in motor behavior over the lifespan, the processes underlying these changes, and the factors affecting them. • Practical applications from this field of study include detection of motor abnormalities, which facilitates early intervention and remediation of problems, and through knowledge of motor development, the creation of more valid, efficient, and scientifically based programs for teaching movement skills. • Human development is categorized into motor (human movement), cognitive (human intellectual change), affective (socioemotional change), and physical (body changes such as height or weight) domains. • Human development is the progressions and regressions that occur within human beings as they age. • Developmental change is characterized by six elements: qualitative, sequential, cumulative, directional, multifactorial, and individual. o To attain a developmental perspective: look at current behaviors with an interest in what preceded them and what will follow and understanding that development is “age-related but not completely age-determined”. • Maturation is specific aspect of development involving qualitative and functional changes occurring with aging. • Growth is quantitative and structural increases that occur with age. • Cephalocaudal, proximodistal, differentiation and integration are motor development trends. • Gross motor and fine motor are movements created by large and small muscle groups. • Process (technique) and product (outcome)-oriented approaches are used to evaluate or measure movement performances. • Age-period approach is useful for studying motor development throughout the lifespan. (infancy, toddlerhood, early adulthood) • Four periods of studying motor development history – precursor period, maturational period, normative/descriptive period, and process-oriented period (which is now 1970- today) • Cross sectional design detects differences between age groups, while longitudinal detects change. o Time-lag design examines different cohorts at different times Chapter 2 Cognitive and Motor Development • Motor and cognitive abilities reciprocally interact throughout the lifespan affecting behavior. • Piaget’s most widely accepted theory concerning cognitive development proposes the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational stages exist. 1. Sensorimotor : First two years of life is the sensorimotor stage, which is characterized by “thinking by bodily movement,” meaning actions created by body enhance the cognitive process i. Major accomplishments in sensorimotor stage include differentiating one’s self and recognizing objects continue to exist even if not in visual sight. Also, child can produce mental images allowing for contemplation of past, future and present times....
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This note was uploaded on 12/12/2010 for the course KIN 4512 taught by Professor Reeve during the Fall '09 term at LSU.
- Fall '09