*thesis – arguments + details in lecture/text/discussions/readings (50/95)
Why and how did Martin Luther’s personal spiritual crisis become a religious, political, and
social revolution? How Luther’s ideas were appropriated by others and how they were applied
to social and political ends far different than Luther himself might have imagined
Ignatius of Loyola
Thesis: Luther’s justification by faith alone, by grace alone, by scripture alone (personal,
religious theology) -> attack CHURCH, so central in people’s religious, political and social life ->
catholic renewal/fragmentation; warfare/modernization; individual
conscience/family/education -> influence exceed expectation, whole Europe and all aspects in
people’s life, even against Luther’s idea (peasants, instead of German nobility as mentioned in
Martin Luther, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
Structure: Lecture 5 & 6
What’s Martin Luther’s personal spiritual crisis?
Sola gratia – grace alone
How & What was the religious revolution it led to?