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PersonalityContemporary - Personality Contemporary 1 Trait...

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3/14/2008 1 Personality: Contemporary 1. Trait Perspective 1. What is a trait? 2. Factor Analysis 3. Inventories (the MMPI) 4. The Big Five 2. Social-Cognitive 1. Learning and Context 2. Locus of Control 3. Learned Helplessness vs Optimism Traits ± trait : a characteristic pattern of behaviour or a disposition to feel and/or act ± re-emphasizes the visible/identifiable over the hidden ± basic personality types can be measures by self-report inventories and peer reports ± how many should there be? ± use factor analysis to see which test items fit together, then name the “cluster” The Big Five Factors ± Emotional stability ± Extraversion ± Openness ± Agreeableness ± Conscientiousness
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3/14/2008 2 Big Five Endpoints The “Big Five” Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Extraversion Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive Assessing/Measuring Traits ± personality inventory : a questionnaire where people respond to items designed to index a wide range of feelings and behaviours ² e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)—empirically derived, originally for emotional disorders
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