Mineral_Composition_Variability_F10

Mineral_Composition_Variability_F10 - Mineral Composition...

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1 Mineral Composition Variability GLY 4200 Fall, 2010
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2 Ionic Substitution - Size Size: Fe 2+ Mg 2+ Ni 2+ (0.86Å) (0.80Å) (0.77Å)
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3 Ionic Substitution - Charge Coupled substitution Ca 2+ 3+ ↔ Na + and Si 4+ Example: Plagioclase feldspar NaAlSi 3 O 8 ↔ CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 Void Ca 2+ & Void ↔ 2 Na +
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4 Victor M. Goldschmidt Swiss-born Norwegian mineralogist and petrologist who laid the foundation of inorganic crystal chemistry and founded modern geochemistry Born 1888, died 1947
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5 Goldschmidt’s Rules - Size Atomic substitution is controlled by size (i.e., radii) of the ions Free substitution can occur if size difference is less than ~15% Limited substitution can occur if size difference is 15 - 30% Little to no substitution can occur if size difference is greater than 30% If there is a small difference of ionic radius the smaller ion enters the crystal preferentially
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6 Goldschmidt’s Rules - Charge Atomic substitution is controlled by charge
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Mineral_Composition_Variability_F10 - Mineral Composition...

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