Properties_of_Light_F10

Properties_of_Light_F10 - Properties of Light GLY 4200 Fall...

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1 Properties of Light GLY 4200 Fall, 2010
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2 Reflection and Refraction Light may be either reflected or refracted upon hitting a surface For reflection, the angle of incidence (θ 1 ) equals the angle of reflection (θ 2 )
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3 Snell’s Law
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Willebrord Snellius Law is named after Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius, one of its discoverers 4
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5 Snell’s Law Example Suppose n i = 1 (air) n r = 1.33 (water) If i = 45 degrees, what is r? (1/1.33) sin 45 = (.750) (0.707) = .532 = sin r r = 32.1
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6 Direction of Bending When light passes from a medium of low index of refraction to one of higher refractive index, the light will be bent (refracted) toward the normal
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7 Polarization
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8 Brewster’s Law Condition of maximum polarization sin r = cos i Angles r + i = 90 degrees Snell's Law (n r /n i ) = (sin i/sin r) Substituting sin r = cos i gives (n r /n i ) = (sin i/ cos i) = tan i This is known as Brewster’s Law, which gives the condition for maximum polarization; however, it is less than 100%
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Sir David Brewster 9 Named after Scottish physicist Sir David Brewster Brewster's angle is an angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a surface, with no reflection This angle is used in polarizing sunglasses which reduce glare by blocking horizontally polarized light
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10 Critical Angle Sin r = (n i sin i)/n r If n i < n r , then (n i sin i)/n r < 1, and a solution for the above equation always exists If n i > n r , then (n i sin i)/n r may exceed 1, meaning that no solution for the equation exists The angle i for which (n i sin i)/n r = 1.00 is called the critical angle For any angle greater than or equal to the critical angle there will be no refracted ray – the light will be totally reflected
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11 Index of Refraction The index of refraction is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the
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