Thermodynamics_and_the_Phase_Rule_F10

Thermodynamics_and_the_Phase_Rule_F10 - Thermodynamics and...

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1 Thermodynamics and the Phase Rule GLY 4200 Fall, 2010
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2 Thermodynamic Background System : The portion of the universe that is being studied Surroundings : The part of the universe not included in the system
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3 Free Energy Any change in the system involves a transfer of energy All chemical systems tend naturally toward states of minimum Gibbs free energy
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4 Gibbs Free Energy G = H - TS Where: G = Gibbs Free Energy H = Enthalpy (heat content) T = Temperature in Kelvin S = Entropy (a measure of randomness)
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5 Alternative Equation For other temperatures and pressures we can use the equation: dG = VdP – SdT where V = volume and S = entropy (both molar) This equation can be used to calculate G for any phase at any T and P by integrating G T 2 P 2 - G T 1 P 1 = ∫ P 1 P 2 VdP - ∫ T 1 T 2 SdT
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6 Using Thermodynamics G is a measure of relative chemical stability for a phase We can determine G for any phase by measuring H and S for the reaction creating the phase from the elements (SiO 2 from silicon and oxygen, for example) We can then determine G at any T and P mathematically How do V and S vary with P and T?
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